Sonntag, 3. Januar 2021

საუბარი რეზო თავაძესთან


 




Freitag, 9. Oktober 2020

სოჩისა და მისი შემოგარენის ისტორიულ წარსულიდან


 ზურაბ პაპასქირი

ბეჟან ხორავა


საერთაშორისო ოლიმპიური კომიტეტის გადაწყვეტილებით 2014წ. ზამთრის ოლიმპიური თამაშები რუსეთის ფედერაციის ქალაქ სოჩში და მის შემოგარენში უნდა ჩატარდეს. ეს ფაქტი არაერთგვაროვნად იქნა აღქმული ჩრდილოეთ კავკასიაში. უფრო მეტიც, ადიღე-ჩერქეზეთის რიგმა საზოგადოებრივმა ორგანიზაციებმა და გაერთიანებებმა ღიად დააფიქსირეს თავიანთი ნეგატიური დამოკიდებულება სოკ-ის ამ გადაწყვეტილებისადმი. ამ პროტესტს თავისი ახსნა აქვს იმ ტერიტორიაზე, სადაც ოლიმპიური თამაშები უნდა გაიმართოს 1864 წლამდე, რუსეთ-კავკასიის ომის დასასრულამდე ადიღური (ჩერქეზული) მოდგმის ხალხები  ჯიქები და უბიხები ცხოვრობდნენ. საყოველთაოდ ცნობილია, რუსეთ-კავკასიის ომის დროს რუსეთის იმპერიამ ჩრდილოეთ კავკასიის მუსლიმურ მოსახლეობას, მათ შორის, შავი ზღვის ჩრდილო-აღმოსავლეთ სანაპიროზე უშუალოდ სოჩი-ადლერის მიდამოებში მცხოვრებ აფხაზურ-ადიღური მოდგმის ხალხებს: შაფსუღებს, უბიხებს, ჯიქებს, აფხაზებს, ნამდვილი გენოციდი მოუწყო. ომის დამთავრების შემდეგ კავკასიაში ნათხვაჯების, შაფსუღების, უბიხების, ჯიქების, აფხაზების მრავალრიცხოვანი სუბეთნოსებიდან მხოლოდ შაფსუღები და აფხაზები შემორჩნენ. სხვები, რუსეთის ხელისუფლებამ დედაბუდიანად აყარა მშობლიური მიწა-წყლიდან და ოსმალეთის იმპერიაში გადაას-ახლა, სადაც ადგილობრივ მოსახლეობას ან სხვა ჩერქეზ ხალხებს შეერწყნენ და თანდათანობით ისტორიის ასპარეზიდან გაქრნენ.

ru­se­Tis im­pe­ri­is mem­kvid­re ru­se­Tis fe­de­ra­cia uars am­bobs Cer­qez­Ta ge­no­ci­dis aR­i­ar­eb­a­ze. ad­iR­es res­pub­li­ku­ri sa­zo­ga­do­eb­ri­vi or­ga­ni­za­cia ,,Cer­qez­Ta kon­g­re­si~ (Tavm­jdo­ma­re mu­rat ber­ze­go­vi) Tvlis, rom im mi­wa­ze, sa­dac ge­no­ci­di mox­da da dRem­de es da­na­Sa­u­li aR­i­ar­eb­u­li ar ar­is, xo­lo Cer­qe­zu­li eT­no­sis aR­or­Zi­ne­ba is­to­ri­ul sam­Sob­lo­Si ga­daw­yve­ti­li ar ar­is, ol­im­pi­u­ri Ta­ma­Se­bis Ca­ta­re­ba mkre­xe­lo­baa da ew­in­a­aRm­de­ge­ba ro­gorc zo­gad­sa­ka­cob­rio, ise sa­er­Ta­So­ri­so ol­im­pi­u­ri ko­mi­te­tis prin­ci­pebs.(1)

Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ro­ze an­ti­kur xa­na­Si da Sua sa­uk­un­e­eb­Si mra­val­ric­xo­va­ni ad­iR­u­ri war­mo­So­bis xal­xe­bi cxov­rob­dnen. qar­Tul sa­is­to­rio wya­ro­eb­Si is­i­ni ji­qe­bis, xo­lo ma­Ti gan­sax­le­bis te­ri­to­ria ji­qe­Tis sa­xe­liT mo­ix­se­ni­e­ba.(2) Sua sa­uk­un­e­eb­Si Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT Sa­viz­Rvis­pi­reT­Si, ker­Zod, so­Ci-tu­af­ses mo­nak­veT­Si mo­sax­le ad­iR­e­eb­is mniS­vne­lo­va­ni na­wi­li qar­Tul po­li­ti­kur-sa­xel­­mwi­fo­eb­riv kul­tu­rul sivr­ce­Si iyo moq­ce­u­li. VIIIs. mi­wu­ruls da­sav­lur­qar­Tu­li sa­xel­mwi­fos ,,af­xaz­Ta~ sa­me­fos Seq­mnis dro­id­an Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­le­Ti sa­na­pi­ro md. ni­kof­si­am­de mis Se­mad­gen­lo­ba­Si Se­di­o­da.(3) md. ni­kof­sia Ta­na­med­ro­ve md. ne­Cef­su­xoa, ro­me­lic am­Ja­min­del q. tu­af­ses Crdi­lo-da­sav­le­TiT er­Tvis Sav zRvas. q. tu­af­ses Crdi­lo-da­sav­le­TiT, zRviT da­ax­lo­eb­iT 20 km-ze, dRe­van­del so­fel no­vo­mi­xa­il­ov­skis­Tan mde­ba­re­ob­da q.ni­kof­sia, qvey­nis uk­id­ur­e­si Crdi­lo-da­sav­le­Ti pun­qti.(4) `matiane qarTlisaÁs~ saxeliT cnobili XIs. qarTuli qronikis cno­biT `afxazTa~ mefe giorgi II-s (929-957) kaxeTis erT-erTi feodali xaxua arSis Ze Sep­yrobili jiqeTs warugzavnia,(5) rac imis dadasturebaa, rom im dros jiqeTi uSu­a­lod `afxazTa~ samefos SemadgenlobaSi moiazreboda.

XIs. da­saw­yis­Si, ro­de­sac sa­qar­Tve­los er­Ti­a­ni mo­nar­qia Se­iq­mna, ji­qe­Ti qa­r­Tu­li politikur-saxelmwifoebrivi samyaros sazRvrispira regionia. erTiani qar­Tu­­li sa­me­fos uk­i­d­u­r­e­si Crdi­lo-da­sav­le­­­Ti saz­Rva­ri q. ni­kof­si­as­Tan, md. ni­kof­si­a­ze ga­di­o­da da ase iyo sa­uk­un­e­eb­is gan­mav­lo­ba­Si.(6) qar­Tve­li me­ma­ti­a­­ne ro­de­sac er­Ti­a­ni sa­qar­Tve­los pir­ve­li me­fis bag­rat III bag­ra­ti­on­is (978-1014) moR­va­we­ob­as ex­e­ba, aR­ni­S­­navs, rom man ,,da­ip­yra yo­ve­li kav­ka­sia TviTm­pyro­be­lo­bi­Ta ji­qe­TiT­gan vid­re gur­­­ge­nadm­de~(7) (e.i. kas­pi­is zRvam­de). gi­or­gi mTaw­min­de­lis cxov­re­ba­Si do­ku­men­tu­ra­daa da­fiq­si­re­bu­li, rom XIs. Sua xa­neb­Si ni­kof­sia uSualod sa­qar­Tve­los sa­xel­mwi­fos saz­R­v­reb­Si Se­mo­di­o­da.(8) da­viT aR­ma­Se­neb­lis mmar­Tve­lo­bis pe­ri­od­Si Se­­mu­Sav­da for­mu­la, rom­lis mi­xed­viT er­Ti­a­ni qar­Tu­li sa­xel­mwi­fos te­ri­to­ria ga­da­Wi­mu­li iyo `nikofsiTgan darubandisa zRvamde da ovseTiTgan soerad are­ga­wamde~.(9) er­Ti­a­ni sa­qar­Tve­los sa­me­fos daS­lis Sem­deg, XVs. II na­xev­ri­dan ji­qe­Ti sa­qar­Tve­los Ca­mo­Sor­da, Tum­ca XVI-XVIII sa­uk­un­e­eb­Si Sed­ge­nil (maT So­ris ru­seT­Si) ru­keb­ze sa­qar­Tve­los saz­Rva­ri q. ni­kof­si­as­Tan Tu md. yu­ba­nis Se­sar­Tav­Tan ga­dis.(10)

XVIs. Sua xa­ne­bi­dan mzar­di ru­se­Tis sa­xel­mwi­fos eqs­pan­si­on­is­tu­ri po­li­ti­kis dRis wes­rig­Si kav­ka­si­is sa­kiT­xi dad­ga. am dro­id­an­ve (1567-1588 ww.) Cnde­ba Crdi­lo­eT kav­ka­si­a­Si, md. Ter­gsa da md. yo­is­u­ze ru­se­bis pir­ve­li si­mag­re­e­bi da sam­xed­ro da­sax­le­be­bi. XVIIIs. II na­xe­var­Si ru­se­Tis in­te­re­se­bi kav­ka­si­is­ad­mi ki­dev uf­ro ga­iz­ar­da. ru­se­Tis mmar­Tvel wre­ebs kar­gad es­mo­daT qvey­ni­saT­vis am re­gi­on­is mniS­vne­lo­ba. gar­da im­i­sa, rom ru­seTs sa­vaW­ro-ek­on­om­ik­u­ri in­te­re­se­bi hqon­da kav­ka­si­a­Si, mi­si mi­za­ni iyo Sav zRva­ze gas­vla, Sua az­i­a­sa da max­lo­bel aR­mo­sav­leT­ze ga­ma­va­li sa­vaW­ro gze­bis xel­Si Cag­de­ba da, sa­bo­loo an­ga­riS­Si, ax­lo aR­mo­sav­leT­Si ek­on­om­ik­u­ri da po­li­ti­ku­ri ga­ba­to­ne­ba.(11)

1763w. ru­se­Tis ja­ris na­wi­le­bi ya­bar­do­Si Se­iW­rnen, md. Ter­gis mar­cxe­na na­pir­ze ci­xe-si­mag­re moz­do­ki da­a­ar­ses da iq ka­zak­Ta gar­ni­zo­ni Ca­ay­en­es. am faq­tma ya­bar­do­el­eb­is aR­Sfo­Te­ba ga­mo­iw­via da maT ci­xe-si­mag­ris dan­gre­va mo­iT­xo­ves. ru­seT­ma es moT­xov­na ar da­ak­ma­yo­fi­la da ya­bar­do­Si da­ma­te­biT Se­iy­va­na sam­xed­ro na­wi­le­bi. am­is sa­pa­su­xod ya­bar­do­el­eb­ma di­di Za­le­biT Se­ut­i­es mo­wi­na­aRm­de­ges. ga­CaR­da as­wli­a­ni ru­seT-kav­ka­si­is omi (1763-1864), ro­mel­Sic ru­se­Ti miz­nad is­ax­av­da Crdi­lo­eT kav­ka­si­is (cen­tra­lu­ri, da­sav­leT da aR­mo­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is) dap­yro­bas, xo­lo kav­ka­si­el mTi­el­Ta mxri­dan oms an­ti­ko­lo­ni­ur, er­ov­nul-gan­ma­Ta­vi­suf­le­be­li xa­si­a­Ti hqon­da.(12)

XIXs. da­saw­yis­Si ru­se­Tis im­pe­ri­am Se­i­er­Ta sa­qar­Tve­lo da sam­xreT kav­ka­si­is sxva po­li­ti­ku­ri er­Te­ul­e­bi. am­is Sem­deg ca­riz­mis ga­da­ud­eb­el stra­te­gi­ul da po­li­ti­kur am­oc­an­as war­mo­ad­gen­da Crdi­lo­eT kav­ka­si­is dap­yro­ba, rac ga­mow­ve­u­li iyo kav­ka­si­a­Si ru­se­Tis po­li­ti­ku­ri mdgo­ma­re­ob­is Ta­vi­se­bu­re­be­biT: im­pe­ri­as­Tan mi­er­Te­bu­li te­ri­to­ri­e­bi kav­ka­si­on­is qe­dis sam­xre­TiT mde­ba­re­ob­da; ma­Ti dap­yro­ba kav­ka­si­on­is mTi­a­ni zo­lis dap­yro­bam­de mox­da. am­de­nad, im­pe­ri­is kav­ka­si­u­ri sam­flo­be­lo­e­bi met­ro­po­li­id­an ga­mij­nu­li aR­moCn­da da­um­or­Ci­le­be­li Crdi­lo­eT kav­ka­si­iT. am­it­om dRis wes­rig­Si Crdi­lo­eT kav­ka­si­is sa­kiT­xi dad­ga. sa­nam ru­se­Ti Crdi­lo­eT kav­ka­si­as, maT So­ris, yu­ba­nis mxa­res da as­e­ve Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ros ar da­ip­yrob­da, mi­si ba­to­no­ba sam­xreT kav­ka­si­a­Si mtki­ce ver iq­ne­bo­da.(13)am­it­om ca­riz­mi am sa­kiT­xis ga­daw­yve­ti­saT­vis zrun­vas Se­ud­ga.

1828-1829 wle­bis ru­seT-osmaleTis om­Si ga­mar­jve­bis Sem­deg sul­Tan­ma ru­se­Tis mflo­be­lo­ba­Si cno Crdi­lo-da­sav­leT kav­ka­sia da Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­le­Ti sa­na­pi­ro. mar­Ta­lia, es mxa­re osmaleTis mflo­be­lo­ba­Si ar iyo, mag­ram mas­ze brwyin­va­le por­tas po­li­ti­ku­ri gav­le­na vrcel­de­bo­da.(14) am om­is dros, 1828w. 12 iv­niss ru­­seT­ma da­ip­yro Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ro­ze mniS­vne­lo­va­ni nav­sad­gu­ri an­a­pa, ro­me­lic Sem­deg am mxa­re­Si ru­se­Tis eqs­pan­si­is plac­dar­mad iq­ca. ro­de­sac ni­ko­loz I (1825-1855) kav­ka­si­is mTa­var­mar­Te­bel­sa da ja­re­bis sar­dals i. pas­ke­viCs (1827-1831) ru­seT-osmaleTis om­Si ga­mar­jve­bas ul­oc­av­da, wer­da: ,,... da­am­Tav­reT ra am­ri­gad er­Ti di­de­bu­li saq­me, Tqven mo­ge­liT me­o­re, Ce­mi az­riT, is­eT­i­ve di­de­bu­li, xo­lo pir­da­pi­ri sar­geb­lis Tval­saz­ri­siT uf­ro mniS­vne­lo­va­ni _ mTi­el­Ta sru­li da­mor­Ci­le­ba an ma­Ti ga­nad­gu­re­ba~.(15)

im­pe­ra­to­ris di­req­ti­va _ ,,mTi­el­Ta sru­li da­mor­Ci­le­ba an ma­Ti ga­nad­gu­re­ba~, _ naT­lad ax­as­i­aT­ebs ca­riz­mis ko­lo­ni­u­ri po­li­ti­kis arss da mi­zans kav­ka­si­a­Si. aR­sa­niS­na­via, rom is­e­Ti li­be­ra­lu­ri da de­mok­ra­ti­u­li Za­la am xa­nis ru­seT­Si, ro­go­ric iy­vnen de­kab­ris­te­bi, as­eT­sa­ve po­zi­ci­a­ze id­gnen. de­kab­ris­tTa ,,sam­xre­Tis sa­zo­ga­do­eb­is~ li­de­ri p. pes­te­li sap­rog­ra­mo do­ku­men­tSi ,,russ­ka­ia prav­da~ kav­ka­si­is xal­xebs yof­da mSfoT­va­re, da­um­or­Ci­le­bel da mSvid, dam­yol to­me­bad. mi­si az­riT, au­ci­l­eb­e­li iyo pir­vel­Ta ga­da­sax­le­ba im­pe­ri­is Si­da gu­ber­ni­eb­Si, xo­lo me­or­e­Ta Tan­da­Ta­no­bi­Ti as­im­il­ac­ia da sru­li gaT­qve­fa kav­ka­si­a­Si Ca­sax­le­bul ru­sul mo­sax­le­ob­a­Si.(16) Sem­deg­Si ca­riz­mi swo­red ase mo­iq­ca.

ir­an­Tan (1826-1828ww.) da osmaleT­Tan (1828-1829w.) om­eb­Si ga­mar­jve­bis Sem­deg, XIX sa­uk­un­is 30-ia­ni wle­bis da­saw­yis­Si ru­se­Tis ja­reb­ma ga­a­aq­ti­ur­es moq­me­de­ba Crdi­lo­eT kav­ka­si­a­Si, maT So­ris, Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ro­ze. ni­ko­loz I-is di­req­ti­vis re­al­iz­eb­is miz­niT i. pas­ke­viC­ma Se­im­uS­a­va kav­ka­si­is mTis xal­xe­bis swra­fi da­mor­Ci­le­bis geg­ma, ro­me­lic im­pe­ra­tor­ma 1829w. oq­tom­ber­Si da­am­tki­ca.(17) geg­ma iT­va­lis­wi­neb­da da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­a­Si _ Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ro­ze da yu­ba­nis mxa­re­Si mcxov­re­bi ad­iR­u­ri to­me­bis da­mor­Ci­le­bas, ris­Tvi­sac sa­Wi­rod iyo miC­ne­u­li Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro­ze ar­se­bu­li si­mag­re­eb­is _ re­dut-ya­le, so­xu­mi, ana­pa _ gar­da ax­a­li si­mag­re­eb­is ag­e­ba, ma­Ti er­Tma­neT­Tan mtki­ced da­kav­Si­re­ba sa­na­pi­ro gziT, ag­reT­ve Crdi­lo­eT­id­an ram­de­ni­me eqs­pe­di­ci­is mow­yo­ba yu­ba­nis mxa­re­Si. Aam geg­mis re­al­iz­eb­is miz­niT Se­iq­mna ,,af­xa­ze­Tis eqs­pe­di­cia~, rom­lis mi­zans so­xu­mi­dan an­ap­am­de sa­na­pi­ro zo­lis da­ka­ve­ba, ga­mag­re­bu­li sa­na­pi­ro xa­zis Seq­mna da si­mag­re­ebs So­ris sax­me­le­To mi­mos­vlis uz­run­vel­yo­fa, sa­bo­loo jam­Si ki da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is mTi­an­eT­Si ru­su­li sam­xed­ro-ad­mi­nis­tra­ci­u­li mmar­T­ve­lo­bis dam­ya­re­ba war­mo­ad­gen­da.(18)

1830w. iv­lis­Si ru­se­Tis ja­ris na­wi­leb­ma af­xa­ze­Tis sa­na­pi­ro­ze de­san­tiT da­ik­av­es gag­ra, biW­vin­Ta da bom­bo­ra, sa­dac ru­seb­ma si­mag­re­e­bi aag­es da ja­ris na­wi­le­bi Ca­ay­en­es. mi­ux­ed­av­ad Tav­da­pir­ve­li war­ma­te­bi­sa, gag­ris Crdi­lo-da­sav­le­TiT ru­se­Tis ja­ris win­svla Se­fer­xda ji­qe­bi­sa da ub­ix­eb­is med­ga­ri wi­na­aRm­de­go­bis ga­mo.(19) af­xa­ze­Tis eqs­pe­di­ci­is moq­me­de­bis pa­ra­le­lu­rad i. pas­ke­viC­ma md. yu­ba­ni ga­da­la­xa da Saf­su­Re­bis ram­de­ni­me au­li ga­an­ad­gu­ra, am­as­Tan md. yu­ban­ze ram­de­ni­me si­mag­re aa­go.(20) am­de­nad, sru­lad ver iq­na miR­we­u­li is, rac eqs­pe­di­ci­is mi­zans Se­ad­gen­da.

Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ro­ze, md. Bbzif­sa da md. xos­Tas (xa­mi­Si) So­ris ji­qe­bis af­xa­zur-ad­iR­u­ri mod­gmis mTi­e­li xal­xi cxov­rob­da. Crdi­lo­eT­iT ma­Ti saz­Rva­ri kav­ka­si­on­is mTa­var wyal­gam­yof qed­ze ga­di­o­da. ji­qe­bis gan­sax­le­bis te­ri­to­ria da­yo­fi­li iyo mTis da sa­na­pi­ro Te­me­bad. ji­qe­bis mTis Te­me­bi iyo: fsxu _ md. Bbzi­fis ze­mo wel­Si; aib­ga _ md. fso­us ze­mo wel­Si; wvi­ja _ md. mzim­Tas Sua wel­ze; ah­Wif­si _ md. mzim­Tas ze­mo wel­Si. ji­qe­bis sa­na­pi­ro Te­me­bi, rom­le­bic Ta­vad­Ta sag­va­re­u­lo sa­xe­le­bis mi­xed­viT iw­od­eb­od­nen, cxov­rob­dnen: can _ md. bzif­sa da md. xa­Suf­ses (can­drif­Si) So­ris; geC _ md. xa­Suf­se­sa da md. mzim­Tas So­ris; ard (ar­ed) _ md. mzim­Ta­sa da md. xos­Tas So­ris. md. xos­Ta­sa da md. Sa­xes So­ris ub­ix­e­bi cxov­rob­dnen; md. Sa­xe­sa da md. fSa­das So­ris _ Saf­su­Re­bi (mci­re Saf­su­Re­bi); md. fSa­da­sa da yu­ba­nis qve­mo wels So­ris _ naT­xva­je­bi.(21)

md. yu­ba­nis auz­Si cxov­rob­dnen mra­val­ric­xo­va­ni ad­i­Re (Cer­qe­zi) xal­xe­bi da ab­az­u­ri Te­me­bi. XIXs. Sua xa­ne­bi­saT­vis mniS­vne­lo­va­ni ad­iR­u­ri su­beT­no­se­bi iyo: ya­bar­do­el­e­bi, bes­le­ne­e­bi, Te­mir­goi, bJe­du­Re­bi, xa­tu­kai, max­va­Se­bi, mam­xe­Re­bi, eg­er­uy­ve­bi, ab­aZ­ex­e­bi, Saf­su­Re­bi, naT­xva­je­bi; md. yu­ba­nis mar­cxe­na na­pir­ze, md. la­bis Se­sar­Tav­sa da yu­bans So­ris cxov­rob­dnen Tur­qu­li mod­gmis yu­ba­nis­pi­re­li no­Ra­el­e­bi, xo­lo da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is ma­Ral­mTi­an zol­Si md. ku­mas, yu­ba­nis mar­cxe­na na­pir­sa da md. la­bis sa­Ta­ve­ebs So­ris cxov­rob­dnen ab­az­u­ri Te­me­bi: Tam, yi­zil­be­ki, Sax­gi­rei, ba­Sil­bai, baR, ba­ra­yai, bas­xo­gi. mxo­lod ad­iR­e­eb­is ra­od­en­o­ba ya­bar­do­el­eb­Tan er­Tad, XIXs. I na­xe­var­Si (30-40-ia­ni wle­bi) 500 aT­ass aR­wev­da. maT­gan yve­la­ze mra­val­ric­xo­van­ni iy­vnen: Saf­su­Re­bi (da­axl. 200 aT­a­si), ab­aZ­ex­e­bi (da­axl. 160 aT­a­si), naT­xva­je­bi (da­axl. 60 aT­a­si).(22) aR­sa­niS­na­via, rom ru­se­bi mTe­li XIX sa­uk­un­is gan­mav­lo­ba­Si maT da­cin­viT to­mebs eZ­ax­dnen.

am­de­nad, ru­seTs di­di dro, Za­la, ad­am­i­an­u­ri da ma­te­ri­al­u­ri re­sur­se­bi sWir­de­bo­da kav­ka­si­el mTi­el­Ta da­sa­mor­Ci­leb­lad. ru­seT-ir­an­i­sa da ru­seT-osmaleTis om­eb­is Sem­deg, ro­de­sac ru­se­Tis po­zi­ci­e­bi kav­ka­si­a­Si ki­dev uf­ro gan­mtkic­da, ca­riz­mma ur­ad­Re­ba kav­ka­si­is mTi­an­eTs mi­ap­yro. kav­ka­si­is mtki­ced da­uf­le­bi­saT­vis auc­il­eb­e­li iyo Ta­vi­su­fa­li mTi­el­eb­is da­mor­Ci­le­ba.

XIXs. 30-ia­ni wle­bis da­saw­yis­Si ru­se­Tis sar­dlo­ba Tavs ik­av­eb­da da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­a­Si far­To Se­te­vi­Ti op­er­ac­i­eb­is­ag­an da an­ap­i­sa da gag­ris ci­xe­eb­is dac­vas sjer­de­bo­da. am pe­ri­od­Si ca­riz­mis yu­rad­Re­ba Zi­ri­Ta­dad Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is­ak­en iyo mip­yro­bi­li, Tum­ca CeC­neT-da­Res­tan­Si sa­om­a­ri moq­me­de­be­bis pa­ra­le­lu­rad, ru­se­Tis ja­ris sam­xed­ro eqs­pe­di­ci­e­bi moq­me­deb­dnen da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­a­Si. kav­ka­si­is mTa­var­mar­Teb­li­sa da kav­ka­si­is kor­pu­sis mTa­var­sar­dlis ba­ron gr. ro­ze­nis (1831-1837) mmar­Tve­lo­bis xa­na­Si sa­fuZ­ve­li Ca­ey­a­ra yu­ba­nis­pi­re­Tis va­ki­sa da kav­ka­si­on­is mTis­wi­ne­Tis da­ka­ve­bas, md. yu­ban­sa da md. la­bas So­ris te­ri­to­ri­a­ze ka­zak­Ta da­sax­le­be­bis Seq­mnas. kav­ka­si­is sar­dlo­ba Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro­ze ag­eb­da si­mag­re­ebs, gah­yav­da gze­bi, rac am mxa­re­Si ca­riz­mis ba­to­no­bis gan­mtki­ce­bas uw­yob­da xels. 1831w. ro­zen­ma Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro­ze ge­len­ji­ki da­ik­a­va da iq si­mag­re aa­go.

kav­ka­si­is mTa­var­mar­Teb­li­sa da kav­ka­si­is ja­re­bis mTa­var­sar­dlis e. go­lo­vi­nis (1837-1842) dros ru­se­Tis sar­dlo­bam, kav­ka­si­el mTi­el­Ta wi­na­aRm­deg ef­eq­tu­ri brZo­lis miz­niT, me­ti yu­rad­Re­ba mi­aq­cia Sa­vi zRvis aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ros mniS­vne­lo­van pun­qteb­Si si­mag­re­eb­is ag­eb­as da dap­yro­bil te­ri­to­ri­eb­ze gze­bis gay­va­nas. ro­gorc we­si, si­mag­re­e­bi da for­te­bi ig­eb­o­da mdi­na­re­eb­is Se­sar­Tav­Tan, ad­gi­lob­riv mkvidr­TaT­vis war­Tme­ul te­ri­to­ri­eb­ze. si­mag­re­eb­is aS­en­eb­iT ru­se­bi kav­ka­si­el mTi­el­ebs us­pob­dnen ga­re sam­ya­ros­Tan, pir­vel rig­Si osmaleT­Tan da in­glis­Tan ur­Ti­er­To­bis sa­Su­al­eb­as, am­as­Tan ru­se­bi magr­de­bod­nen Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro­ze, ru­se­Tis flots xel­say­re­li pi­ro­be­bi eq­mne­bo­da Sav zRva­ze ba­to­no­bi­saT­vis. 1837w. ni­ko­loz I pi­ra­dad Ca­mo­vi­da kav­ka­si­a­Si. an­ap­a­Si yof­ni­sas man brZa­na da­eC­qa­re­bi­naT for­te­bis mSe­neb­lo­ba da da jars da­us­a­xa am­oc­a­na Cer­qez­Ta mTe­li sa­na­pi­ros da­ka­ve­ba.(23) 1837w. Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ro­ze ai­go si­mag­re­e­bi: svi­at­o­go du­xa (ad­le­ri) _ md. mzim­Tas Se­sar­Tav­Tan, ad­le­ris kon­cxze; no­vo-tro­ic­koe _ md. fSa­dis Se­sar­Tav­Tan; mi­xa­il­ov­skoe _ md. vu­la­nis Se­sar­Tav­Tan; 1838w. _ al­eq­san­dri­is for­ti, ro­mel­sac mom­dev­no wels na­va­gin­ski ew­o­da (md. so­Cis Se­sar­Tav­Tan); ve­li­am­in­ov­skoe _ md. tu­af­ses Se­sar­Tav­Tan; Ten­gin­skoe _ md. Saf­su­xos Se­sar­Tav­Tan; no­vo­ro­si­is­ki _ ce­me­sis yu­re­Si; 1839w. _ for­ti go­lo­vin­ski (md. su­ba­Sis/Sa­xe Se­sar­Tav­Tan, for­ti la­za­rev­skoe _ md. fse­zu­af­ses Se­sar­Tav­Tan.(24)

1839w. Sa­vi zRvis aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ros yve­la ru­su­li si­mag­re er­Tma­neT­Tan sax­me­le­To gziT da­ak­av­Si­res. yve­la es si­mag­re iq gan­la­ge­bul ja­reb­Tan er­Tad Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro xa­zis sis­te­ma­Si Se­vi­da. Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ro­ze mcxov­re­bi ji­qe­bi, ub­ix­e­bi, Saf­su­Re­bi, naT­xva­je­bi Tavs es­xmod­nen ru­sul si­mag­re­ebs, ru­sul ja­ris na­wi­lebs da mud­mi­vi SiS­Si hyav­daT ru­su­li gar­ni­zo­ne­bi. 1840w. da­saw­yis­Si maT ga­a­aq­ti­ur­es moq­me­de­ba ru­se­Tis ja­re­bis wi­na­aRm­deg. maT­Tvis cno­bi­li iyo, rom si­mag­re­e­bi sa­Ta­na­dod ar iyo da­cu­li, mci­re­ric­xo­va­ni iyo si­mag­re­Ta gar­ni­zo­ni, ja­ris­ka­cebs mra­va­li prob­le­ma hqon­daT, maT So­ris Se­i­ar­aR­eb­is mxriv da sxv. am­iT Se­gu­li­an­eb­ul­ma mTi­el­eb­ma Se­ut­i­es ru­sul si­mag­re­ebs da Te­ber­val-mar­tSi la­za­rev­skoe, ve­li­am­in­ov­skoe da mi­xa­il­ov­skoe da­ik­av­es. (25)

ru­se­Tis sar­dlo­ba Tvli­da, rom Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro­ze sim­Svi­de ma­nam ar da­is­ad­gu­reb­da, sa­nam ub­ix­ebs ar da­im­or­Ci­leb­dnen. 1841w. da­saw­yis­Si ru­se­Tis ja­ris na­wi­le­bi ji­qe­Ti­dan, md. mzim­Ta­dan ub­ix­eT­Si Se­iW­rnen, ram­de­ni­me au­li ga­an­ad­gu­res da na­va­gin­skis si­mag­rem­de mi­aR­wi­es, mag­ram qvey­nis siRr­me­Si, mTeb­Si ver Se­aR­wi­es. ub­ix­eb­ma med­ga­ri wi­na­aRm­de­go­ba ga­uw­i­es mters. ub­ix­eb­is wi­nam­ZRo­lis, 70 wlis ha­ji da­gu­moy­va bar­ze­gis 9 va­JiS­vi­li­dan 4 brZo­la­Si da­iR­u­pa, sxve­bi ki da­iW­rnen. no­em­b­ris da­saw­yis­Si eqs­pe­di­cia ad­ler­Si dab­run­da.(26) am­de­nad, ub­ix­eT­Si sam­xed­ro eqs­pe­di­ci­as ra­i­me re­al­u­ri Se­de­gi ar moh­yo­lia.

yi­ri­mis om­is (1853-1855ww.) dros ru­se­Tis xe­li­suf­le­ba iZ­ul­eb­u­li gax­da Sa­vi zRvis aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ros si­mag­re­e­bi da­ec­a­la da aef­eT­qe­bi­na. om­is dam­Tav­re­bis Sem­deg ru­se­Tis xe­li­suf­le­bam di­di Za­le­biT Se­ut­ia kav­ka­si­el mTi­el­ebs, rom­le­bic di­di xnis gan­mav­lo­ba­Si ew­e­od­nen uT­an­as­wo­ro brZo­las. ca­riz­mma kav­ka­si­a­Si Ta­vi mo­uy­a­ra mniS­vne­lo­van Za­lebs, kav­ka­si­is kor­pu­si ar­mi­ad gar­da­iq­mna. kav­ka­si­is ar­mi­is mTa­var­sar­dli­sa da kav­ka­si­is me­fis­nac­vlis a. ba­ri­at­in­skis (1856-1862) yu­rad­Re­ba Zi­ri­Ta­dad CeC­neT-da­Res­tni­sa­ken iyo mip­yro­bi­li, mag­ram igi fiq­rob­da, rom Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ro­ze gan­mtki­ce­bis ga­re­Se da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is dap­yro­ba Se­uZ­le­be­li iyo. 1858w. ian­var­Si ru­se­Tis ja­ris na­wi­leb­ma ga­an­ad­gu­res ab­aZ­ex­eb­is aul­e­bi md. qur­jif­sze da md. fSe­xa­ze, Sax­gi­re­eb­is aul­e­bi md. xo­Zis ze­mo wel­Si, naT­xva­je­bis 23 au­li; im­av­dro­ul­ad 6 sta­ni­ca da­af­uZ­nes mdi­na­re­eb­ze _ ur­u­pi, Te­ge­ni, di­di ze­len­Cu­ki.(27) 1859w. ian­var-Te­ber­val­Si ru­se­Tis ja­ris na­wi­leb­ma Se­ut­i­es md. la­ba­sa da md. be­la­i­as So­ris mcxov­reb mTi­el xal­xebs da cec­xli­Ta da max­vi­liT ga­an­ad­gu­res ma­Ti aul­e­bi, mo­us­pes maT sar­Co-sa­ba­de­be­li, am­it­om­ac mo­ew­yo eqs­pe­di­cia zam­Tar­Si. iv­nis-ag­vis­to­Si wi­na­aRm­de­go­ba Sew­yvi­tes da ru­sebs da­mor­Cil­dnen bJe­du­Re­bi, bes­le­ne­e­bi, max­va­Se­bi, yu­ba­nis­pi­re­li no­Ra­el­e­bi, Te­mir­goi, eg­er­uy­ve­bi, Sax­gi­re­e­bi.(28)

1859w. 25 ag­vis­tos ru­se­Tis sar­dlo­bas da­neb­da kav­ka­si­el mTi­el­Ta er­ov­nul-gan­ma­Ta­vi­suf­le­be­li brZo­lis me­Ta­u­ri mTe­li me­oT­xe­di sa­uk­un­is man­Zil­ze Sa­mi­li. kav­ka­si­is om­is er­Ti mniS­vne­lo­va­ni et­a­pi dam­Tavr­da, ru­seT­ma Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT kav­ka­sia _ CeC­neT-da­Res­ta­ni da­ip­yro. Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT kav­ka­si­a­Si om­is dam­Tav­re­bis­Ta­na­ve mTi­el­e­bi dar­wmun­dnen, rom ru­seT­Tan brZo­lis ga­nax­le­ba uaz­ro­ba iyo da ga­daw­yvi­tes gac­lod­nen maT­Tvis mi­uR­eb­el ax­lad­dam­ya­re­bul ko­lo­ni­ur re­Jims. kav­ka­si­el­ma mTi­el­eb­ma osmaleT­Si ga­da­sax­le­ba ga­daw­yvi­tes. am­as arc ru­se­Ti Se­wi­na­aRm­de­ge­bia, pi­ri­qiT, aq­ez­eb­da ki­dec, rad­gan xe­li­suf­le­ba im­ed­ov­neb­da, rom da­um­or­Ci­le­be­li mTi­el­eb­is ga­da­sax­le­bis Sem­deg am mxa­re­Si mya­ri mSvi­do­ba da­is­ad­gu­reb­da. am­as­Tan, ga­Ta­vi­sufl­de­bo­da mi­wis uz­ar­ma­za­ri fon­di, ro­mel­sac ca­riz­mi ko­lo­ni­za­ci­is­aT­vis ga­mo­iy­en­eb­da, am mi­web­ze Ca­mo­sax­le­bu­le­bi ki ca­riz­mis myar da­sayr­dens Seq­mnid­nen. am­is Se­de­gad osmaleT­Si ga­da­saxl­dnen da­Res­tne­le­bi, CeC­ne­bi, os­e­bi, sul asi aT­as­am­de ka­ci. ro­gorc ca­riz­mis er­Tgu­li mo­xe­le e. ve­id­en­ba­u­mi aR­niS­nav­da, ,,kav­ka­si­e­li mTi­el­e­bi, rom­le­bic ar­aC­ve­ul­eb­ri­vi ga­af­Tre­biT ebr­Zod­nen ru­sebs, da­mar­cxe­bu­le­bi, mag­ram ara da­mor­Ci­le­bu­le­bi, osmaleTi­sa­ken ga­em­ar­Tnen~.(29)

ru­se­Tis mi­er Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is dap­yro­bis Sem­deg, im­pe­ri­is wi­na­aRm­deg brZo­las ga­nagr­Zob­dnen da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is mTi­el­e­bi _ mra­val­ric­xo­va­ni adiR­e­e­bi da ab­az­e­bi. am­it­om ru­se­Tis sar­dlo­bam aq­eT­ken gad­mo­is­ro­la 200 aT­as­i­a­ni kav­ka­si­is ar­mi­is Zi­ri­Ta­di na­wi­le­bi. Aal­eq­san­dre II(1855-1881) sar­dlo­bi­sa­gan mo­iT­xov­da, rom kav­ka­si­is omi, ro­me­lic ase did­xans ga­iw­e­la da uz­ar­ma­zar sax­srebs nTqav­da, ma­le da­em­Tav­re­bi­naT. om­Si swra­fi ga­mar­jve­ba ru­seTs sWir­de­bo­da ag­reT­ve ev­ro­pis Tval­Si yi­ri­mis om­Si (1853-1856) da­mar­cxe­biT Ser­ye­u­li av­to­ri­te­tis aR­sad­ge­nad. (30) 1860w. seq­tem­ber­Si kav­ka­si­is me­fis­nac­val­ma da kav­ka­si­is ar­mi­is mTa­var­sar­dal­ma a. ba­ri­at­in­skim om­is swra­fad dam­Tav­re­bi­saT­vis Ro­nis­Zi­eb­eb­is da­sax­vis miz­niT, vla­di­kav­kaz­Si sam­xed­ro TaT­bi­ri mo­iw­via. TaT­bir­ze ga­dawy­da, rom da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is da­sa­mor­Ci­leb­lad Se­te­va da­ew­yoT md. la­bi­sa da md. be­la­i­as ze­mo we­li­dan da mTe­bi­dan Sa­vi zRvi­sa­ken ga­mo­ed­ev­naT ab­aZ­ex­e­bi, Saf­su­Re­bi, ub­ix­e­bi. maT mi­er stav­ro­po­lis gu­ber­ni­is ste­peb­Si ga­da­sax­le­ba­ze uar­is Tqmis Sem­Txve­va­Si, is­i­ni osmaleTSi ga­da­es­ax­le­bi­naT, xo­lo maT mi­wa-wyal­ze ru­se­bi Ca­es­ax­le­bi­naT, um­Tav­re­sad ka­za­ke­bi. am­is ga­re­Se, ro­gorc ru­se­Tis sar­dlo­ba Tvli­da, kav­ka­si­is dap­yro­ba sru­li da sa­bo­loo ver iq­ne­bo­da.(31) kav­ka­si­is sar­dlo­bis geg­miT, da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is mTi­el­e­bi un­da aey­ar­aT Ta­vi­an­Ti sac­xov­re­be­li ad­gi­le­bi­dan da iq ru­se­bi Ca­e­sax­le­bi­naT. ru­sul ko­lo­ni­za­ci­as ara mxo­lod un­da dag­vir­gvi­ne­bi­na qvey­nis dap­yro­ba, ar­am­ed is Tvi­Ton un­da yo­fi­li­yo dap­yro­bis erT-er­Ti mTa­va­ri sa­Su­al­e­ba.(32) ma­Sin, cxel kval­ze, r. fa­de­e­vi wer­da: ,,Западные горы должно покорить безотлогательноне щадя для того никаких жертв~.(33)

am­ri­gad, kav­ka­si­is da­mor­Ci­le­bis mTa­var sa­Su­al­eb­ad miC­ne­ul iq­na sam­xed­ro ko­lo­ni­za­cia. aq­am­de kav­ka­si­e­li mTi­el­eb­is wi­na­aRm­deg ew­yo­bo­da eqs­pe­di­ci­e­bi, am­ar­cxeb­dnen maT, im­or­Ci­leb­dnen, mag­ram Sem­deg is­i­ni kvlav ibr­Zod­nen ru­se­bis wi­na­aRm­deg. es iw­vev­da ja­ris­kac­Ta did msxverpls, qve­ya­na ki da­um­or­Ci­le­be­li rCe­bo­da. am­i­er­id­an, ga­dawy­da, Se­ew­yvi­taT uS­ed­e­go sam­xed­ro eqs­pe­di­ci­e­bi da Sed­go­mod­nen mTis sis­te­mur da­sax­le­bas ka­zak­Ta sta­ni­ce­biT, xo­lo kav­ka­si­e­li mTi­el­e­bi ga­da­es­ax­le­bi­naT dab­lob­ze an ga­es­ax­le­bi­naT osmaleTSi. ru­se­Tis xe­li­suf­le­ba am gziT cdi­lob­da, kav­ka­si­e­li mTi­el­eb­is­aT­vis mo­es­po bu­neb­ri­vi Tav­Se­sa­fa­ri mTe­bis sa­xiT da dab­lob­ze Ca­mo­sax­le­biT Ta­vi­si ad­mi­nis­tra­ci­is kon­tro­li­saT­vis da­eq­vem­de­ba­re­bi­na an osmaleT­Si ga­da­sax­le­biT Se­em­ci­re­bi­na ma­Ti xved­ri­Ti wi­li qve­ya­na­Si da da­es­us­te­bi­na is­i­ni. mog­vi­an­eb­iT, 1861w. oq­tom­ber­Si a. ba­ri­at­in­ski gu­lax­di­lad aR­niS­nav­da, rom da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is mTi­el­Ta ga­da­sax­le­bis mi­za­ni iyo ,,Избавить кавказское плоскогорье отнаселения... и открыт этим самым прекрасные и плодородные места для... казачьего поселения~. (34)

1861w. ian­var-Te­ber­val­Si ru­seb­ma sa­om­a­ri moq­me­de­be­bi da­iw­yes kav­ka­si­on­is qe­dis Crdi­lo­eT kal­Teb­ze Saf­su­Re­bis wi­na­aRm­deg. is­i­ni ka­fav­dnen tye­ebs, gah­yav­daT gze­bi, ag­eb­dnen si­mag­re­ebs. ma­le, ru­se­Tis sar­dlo­bam ab­aZ­ex­ebs ul­ti­ma­tu­mi wa­uy­e­na _ ga­da­sax­le­bu­liy­vnen yu­ban­ze. mag­ram ab­aZ­ex­e­bi da­mor­Ci­le­bas ar ap­ir­eb­dnen. ma­Sin, ap­ril­Si, ru­se­bi Se­te­va­ze ga­da­vid­nen da 20 dRis gan­mav­lo­ba­Si cec­xli­Ta da max­vi­liT ga­i­ar­es md. la­bas Se­na­kad xoZ­sa da md. be­la­i­as So­ris te­ri­to­ria. ab­aZ­ex­e­bi, max­va­Se­bi, eg­er­uy­ve­bi mTeb­Si eZ­eb­dnen Tav­Se­sa­fars. iv­nis­Si md. be­la­i­as mTel sigr­Ze­ze mi­si or­i­ve na­pi­ri ru­se­bis xel­Si iyo, Tum­ca ab­aZ­ex­e­bi wi­na­aRm­de­go­bas ar wyvet­dnen.(35)

da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is mTi­el­eb­ma da­in­ax­es, Tu ra sa­SiS­ro­eb­ac em­uq­re­bo­daT da uf­ro mtki­ced Se­kav­Si­re­ba ga­daw­yvi­tes. 1861w. iv­nis­Si md. so­Cis xe­ob­a­Si ub­ix­eb­is in­ic­i­at­iv­iT da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is mTi­el xal­xTa war­mo­mad­gen­le­bi Se­ik­rib­nen. maT ga­daw­yvi­tes Se­eq­mnaT mtki­ce kav­Si­ri, xo­lo mi­si mar­Tvi­saT­vis air­Ci­es 15 pi­ri­sa­gan Sem­dga­ri sab­Wo, ro­mel­sac mej­li­si ew­o­da. mas­ze daq­vem­de­ba­re­bu­li te­ri­to­ria 12 ol­qad da­i­yo. Ti­To­e­ul ol­qSi iyo muf­ti, ya­di da ma­ma­sax­li­si. ga­reg­nu­lad es or­ga­ni­za­cia im­am­at­is sis­te­mas hgav­da, mag­ram mas ar hqon­da mkveT­rad ga­mo­xa­tu­li Te­ok­ra­ti­u­li xa­si­a­Ti. mTi­el­e­bi ar dak­ma­yo­fil­dnen Si­na­ga­ni or­ga­ni­za­ci­is mow­yo­biT. is­i­ni eZ­i­eb­dnen osmaleTi­sa da in­gli­sis dax­ma­re­bas. ag­vis­to­Si mej­li­sis wev­reb­ma, ub­ix­eb­is erT-er­Tma wi­nam­ZRol­ma ke­ren­tux bar­zeg­ma da iz­ma­il ba­ra­yai-ifa Zi­aS­ma we­ri­liT mi­mar­Tes in­gli­sis kon­suls so­xum­Si dik­sons. mas sTxo­ves Ta­vi­si mTa­va­ro­bi­saT­vis ec­no­be­bi­na ru­se­Tis ja­ris mi­er Cer­qez­Ta wi­na­aRm­deg mi­mar­Tu­li ag­re­si­is Se­sa­xeb da ga­mo­sar­Cle­ba iT­xo­ves. (36)

1861w. seq­tem­ber­Si kav­ka­si­a­Si, sa­om­a­ri moq­me­de­be­bis zo­na­Si al­eq­san­dre II Ca­vi­da. 18 seq­tem­bers im­pe­ra­tors Sexv­dnen da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is mTi­el xal­xTa _ ab­aZ­ex­eb­is, Saf­su­Re­bis, ub­ix­eb­is da sxva­Ta war­mo­mad­gen­le­bi. maT im­pe­ra­tors sTxo­ves mi­e­Ro isi­­ni Ta­vis qve­Sevr­do­mad da Ta­vi­anT mi­waw­yal­ze da­et­ov­eb­i­na. mag­ram im­pe­ra­tor­ma maT ka­te­go­ri­ul­ad ga­nuc­xa­da, rom erT Tves aZ­lev­da mo­sa­fiq­reb­lad: ga­da­sax­le­bu­liy­vnen yu­ba­nis­pi­ra dab­lob­ze an wa­su­liy­vnen osmaleT­Si.(37) mTi­el­eb­is­Tvis na­Te­li iyo, rom yu­ban­sa da la­ba­ze ga­da­sax­le­biT is­i­ni da­kar­gav­dnen da­mo­uk­id­eb­lo­bas da Ta­vi­suf­le­bas, rom­li­Tac mi­uv­al mTeb­Si sar­geb­lob­dnen. maT did na­wils arc osmaleTSi ga­da­sax­le­bis ga­go­ne­ba sur­da, am­it­om im­pe­ra­to­ris wi­na­da­de­ba ar mi­iR­es da no­em­bri­dan omi kvlav ga­naxl­da. ru­se­Tis sar­dlo­ba yu­ba­nis qve­mo wel­ze, naT­xva­je­bi­sa da Saf­su­Re­bis mi­wa-wyal­ze, in­ten­si­ur­ad as­ax­leb­da ka­za­kebs, xo­lo naT­xva­jebs sac­xov­reb­lad ga­ne­saz­RvraT mi­we­bi yu­ba­nis ga­yo­le­ba­ze. 1861w. ga­zaf­xu­li­dan 1862w. ga­zaf­xu­lam­de yu­ba­nis ol­qSi ka­zak­Ta 35 sta­ni­ca gaCn­da.(38)

1862w. dam­degs ru­se­Tis ja­ris na­wi­le­bi uk­ve kav­ka­si­on­is qe­dis Zir­Si ga­moCn­dnen, ub­ix­eb­is mi­wa-wyal­Tan sul ax­los. es faq­ti 1862w. iv­nis­Si mej­li­sis sa­gan­ge­bo Sek­re­bis mi­ze­zi gax­da. mej­lis­ma da­ad­gi­na stam­bol­Si, pa­riz­sa da lon­don­Si el­Co­bis gag­zav­na dax­ma­re­bis Txov­niT.(39) 1862w. iv­nis­Si ab­aZ­ax­eb­ma da Saf­su­Reb­ma er­Txel ki­dev sca­des ru­se­Tis ja­re­bis Se­Ce­re­ba. maT da­sax­ma­reb­lad 5 aT­a­si ub­ix­ic mo­vi­da. iv­nis-iv­lis­Si sas­ti­ki brZo­le­bi ga­im­ar­Ta, mag­ram mTi­el­e­bi kvlav da­mar­cxdnen, Tum­ca is­i­ni am­is Sem­de­gac ar wyvet­dnen wi­na­aRm­de­go­bas.(40)

im­av­dro­ul­ad, mej­li­sis de­pu­ta­cia iz­ma­il ba­ra­yai-ifa Zi­aS­is me­Ta­ur­ob­iT stam­bols da ev­ro­pis rig sa­xel­mwi­fo­ebs ew­via dax­ma­re­bis Txov­niT, mag­ram uS­ed­e­god. 1862w. mi­wu­ruls mTi­el­Ta de­pu­ta­cia po­lo­nel re­vo­lu­ci­on­er­Tan, da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is mTi­el­eb­is gver­diT mebr­Zol Te­of­il la­pin­skis­Tan er­Tad lon­don­Si wa­rud­ga in­gli­sis pre­mi­er-mi­nistrs lord pal­mer­stons da ru­se­Tis ag­re­si­is wi­na­aRm­deg dax­ma­re­ba sTxo­va. T. la­pin­skim mgzne­ba­re sit­yviT mi­mar­Ta pre­mi­er mi­nistrs. mi­si az­riT, ev­ro­pa gul­gri­li ma­yu­re­be­li ar un­da dar­Ce­ni­li­yo im tra­ge­di­is, rac kav­ka­si­a­Si xde­bo­da; sa­Wi­ro iyo en­er­gi­u­li zo­me­bis mi­Re­ba da ru­se­Tis Za­le­bis pa­ra­li­ze­ba; ev­ro­pas ra­me un­da eR­o­na, rom ru­se­Tis Za­le­bi da­eq­saq­sa sam­xreT­Si da am­iT kav­ka­si­e­li mTi­el­e­bi ga­nad­gu­re­bi­sa­gan ex­sna. am saq­me­Si T. la­pin­ski did im­ed­ebs am­ya­reb­da in­glis­ze, ro­me­lic ,,aR­mo­sav­le­Tis sa­kiTx­Si~ ru­se­Tis mo­qiS­pe iyo. pal­mer­ston­ma yu­rad­Re­biT mo­is­mi­na mgzne­ba­re sit­yve­bi, mag­ram igi kar­gad xe­dav­da, rom kav­ka­si­a­Si ru­se­Tis win­svlis Se­Ce­re­ba Se­uZ­le­be­li iyo, am­it­om de­pu­ta­ci­as dax­ma­re­ba­ze ua­ri uT­xra.(41)

1863w. da­saw­yis­Si ru­se­Tis ja­reb­ma sa­bo­lo­od mo­aq­ci­es blo­ka­da­Si ab­aZ­ex­e­bi. mZi­me mdgo­ma­re­ob­a­Si Ca­var­dni­li ab­aZ­ex­e­bi Se­ec­ad­nen mo­la­pa­ra­ke­bod­nen ru­sebs, mag­ram sar­dlo­bam maT ul­ti­ma­tu­mi wa­uy­e­na ga­da­sax­le­bu­liy­vnen yu­ban­ze an osmaleTSi wa­su­liy­vnen. ab­aZ­ex­ebs sam­Sob­los da­to­ve­ba ar sur­daT. ap­ril­Si ru­se­Tis ja­ris na­wi­le­bi maT mi­waw­yal­ze Se­iW­rnen. ro­de­sac ab­aZ­ex­eb­ma na­xes, rom ru­se­Tis jars uk­an moy­ve­bo­da rus mo­ax­al­Se­ne­Ta ur­ic­xvi tran­spor­ti da is­i­ni ik­av­eb­dnen maT sac­xov­re­bels, sru­le­biT da­ec­nen su­li­er­ad, rad­gan mixv­dnen, rom er­Ta­der­Ti gza dar­Ce­no­daT _ osmaleT­Si was­vla. ab­aZ­ex­eb­ma ge­ne­ral n. ev­do­ki­movs sTxo­ves, xe­li ar Se­eS­a­la maT­Tvis osmaleTSi was­vla­Si, ra­zec am uk­an­as­knel­ma, pi­ri­qiT, dax­ma­re­bac aR­uT­qva.(42) am­a­ve dros, ru­se­bi Se­te­vas aw­ar­mo­eb­dnen Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro zol­Si Saf­su­Re­bis wi­na­aRm­deg. 1863 w. zaf­xul­Si ru­se­Tis ja­ris na­wi­le­bi agr­Ze­leb­dnen sa­om­ar moq­me­de­bebs Saf­su­Re­bis, naT­xva­je­bis, ab­aZ­ax­eb­is wi­na­aRm­deg, gah­yav­daT gze­bi, ga­nagr­Zob­dnen stan­ci­eb­is mow­yo­bas. ro­gorc da­geg­mi­li iyo, zaf­xu­lis gan­mav­lo­ba­Si yu­ba­nis mxa­re­Si 20 ax­a­li sta­ni­ca Se­iq­mna, ris Sem­de­ga­dac ka­zak­Ta 2 pol­ki Ca­mo­ya­lib­da. sul, 1860 wli­dan 1863 wlis CaT­vliT, yu­ba­nis ol­qSi 58 sta­ni­ca da­fuZn­da ar­an­ak­leb 10 aT­a­si oj­ax­iT.(43)

oq­tom­ber-no­em­ber­Si ru­seb­ma sa­bo­lo­od da­im­or­Ci­les Saf­su­Re­bi da de­kem­ber­Si md. Saf­su­xos Se­sar­Ta­vam­de mi­aR­wi­es. am­ri­gad, 1863w. mi­wu­ruls ru­sebs Crdi­lo-da­sav­le­Ti kav­ka­sia dap­yro­bi­li hqon­daT, rCe­bo­da mxo­lod kav­ka­si­on­is sam­xreT kal­Te­bi­sa da Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro zo­lis dap­yro­ba, sa­dac Saf­su­Re­bis na­wi­li, ub­ix­e­bi da ji­qe­bi cxov­rob­dnen. 1863w. 10 de­kem­bers kav­ka­si­is ax­a­li me­fis­nac­va­li da kav­ka­si­is ar­mi­is mTa­var­sar­da­li, di­di MmTa­va­ri mi­xe­il ni­ko­lo­zis Ze ro­ma­no­vi (1862-1881) wer­da: ,,da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is sa­bo­loo daw­yna­re­ba un­da mox­des Sa­vi zRvis aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ro­ze ru­su­li mo­sax­le­ob­is Ca­mo­sax­le­biT. am mniS­vne­lo­va­ni sa­xel­mwi­fo­eb­ri­vi Ro­nis­Zi­eb­is gan­xor­ci­el­e­ba na­va­ra­ud­ev­ia uax­lo­es mo­ma­val­Si. ka­zak­Ta sta­ni­ce­biT da­ka­ve­bu­lia te­ri­to­ria yu­ba­nis Se­sar­Ta­vi­dan ce­me­sis yu­rem­de, sa­na­pi­ro zo­li uk­ve gaw­men­di­lia md. ju­bis Se­sar­Ta­vam­de. ga­zaf­xu­lis­Tvis, da­nar­Cen te­ri­to­ri­az­ec, ro­me­lic gan­saz­Rvru­lia ka­zak­Ta Ca­sax­le­bi­saT­vis im­pe­ra­to­ris mi­er dam­tki­ce­bu­li da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is da­sax­le­bis Se­sa­xeb de­bu­le­biT, ar un­da dar­Ces mTi­e­li mo­sax­le­o­ba. Tu sa­ga­reo mov­le­neb­ma xe­li ar Seg­vi­Sa­la, ma­Sin mo­ma­va­li zaf­xu­lis gan­mav­lo­ba­Si vi­me­dov­neb sa­na­pi­ros gaw­men­das md. bzi­fam­dec ki, ro­gorc de­bu­le­bi­Taa gan­saz­Rvru­li~.(44)

am­ri­gad, xe­li­suf­le­bas ga­daw­yve­ti­li hqon­da Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro zo­lis md. bzi­fam­de ka­za­ke­biT da­sax­le­ba. kav­ka­si­is me­fis­nac­va­li di­di mTa­va­ri mi­xe­il ni­ko­lo­zis Ze ro­ma­no­vi fiq­rob­da aq xu­to­ru­li me­ur­ne­ob­is gan­vi­Ta­re­bas saz­Rvao saq­mi­sa da Tev­zWe­ris mi­mar­Tu­le­biT.

1864w. Te­ber­val­Si ab­aZ­ax­eb­is na­wi­li osmaleTSi ga­da­saxl­da, xo­lo na­wi­li _ md. be­la­i­as qve­mo wel­ze. ca­riz­mi, ro­me­lic kav­ka­si­a­Si Ta­vi­si dam­pyrob­lu­ri geg­me­bis gan­xor­ci­el­eb­is­as ad­gi­lob­riv mkvidr­Ta gmi­rul wi­na­aRm­de­go­bas Sexv­da, da­ca­ri­e­leb­u­li ad­gi­le­bis Se­er­Te­bas am­jo­bi­neb­da. am­it­om xe­li­suf­le­ba ki ar ew­in­a­aRm­de­ge­bo­da, ar­am­ed xel­sac uw­yob­da ad­gi­lob­ri­vi mo­sax­le­ob­is osmaleTSi ga­da­sax­le­bas, ri­Tac kav­ka­si­is sa­bo­loo dap­yro­ba daC­qar­de­bo­da. ru­se­Tis sar­dlo­ba fiq­rob­da, rom Tu omi ga­zaf­xu­lam­de ar dam­Tavr­de­bo­da, Sem­deg Se­iZ­le­bo­da ga­Wi­an­ur­eb­ul­i­yo, rad­gan ,,tye ga­if­oT­le­bo­da, ba­la­xi am­ov­id­o­da, xor­ba­li am­o­iw­ve­re­bo­da, ir­gvliv yve­la­fe­ri ga­mo­cocxl­de­bo­da da mTi­el­Ta sa­Su­al­eb­eb­ic ga­aT­kec­de­bo­da. tye­e­bi iq­ne­bo­da ma­Ti Tav­Se­sa­fa­ri, sak­ve­bi eq­ne­bo­da ad­am­i­an­sa da pi­rutyvs, xo­lo zam­Tar­Si sur­sa­Tis ma­ra­gi­sa da sof­le­bis ga­nad­gu­re­ba maT­ze dam­Rup­ve­lad im­oq­me­deb­da~.(45)

1864w. Te­ber­val­Si ru­se­Tis ja­ris na­wi­leb­ma da­iw­yes kav­ka­si­on­is qe­dis ga­da­lax­va. is­i­ni Se­te­vas aw­ar­mo­eb­dnen Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro zol­Sic. im­av­dro­ul­ad, ubi­x­eT­i­sa da ji­qe­Tis sa­na­pi­ros ru­se­Tis sam­xed­ro-saz­Rvao Za­le­bis xo­mal­de­bic mi­ad­gnen. mar­tis da­saw­yis­Si da­xos raz­mma ge­ne­ral v. ge­im­an­is sar­dlo­biT kav­ka­si­on­is qe­di ga­da­la­xa, md. tu­af­ses xe­ob­a­Si ga­da­vi­da da Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro zo­lis gaw­men­das Se­ud­ga. 18 marts v. ge­im­an­ma md. god­likx­Tan da­am­ar­cxa Saf­su­Re­bi da ub­ix­e­bi da 25 marts md. soCs mi­aR­wia. 26 marts v. ge­im­an­Tan ga­moc­xad­da ji­qe­bis erT-er­Ti wi­nam­ZRo­li re­Sid ge­Ci da mor­Ci­le­ba ga­mo­uc­xa­da mas.(46) 1864w. mar­tSi kav­ka­si­is me­fis­nac­va­li da kav­ka­si­is ar­mi­is mTa­var­sar­da­li mi­xe­il ro­ma­no­vi al­eq­san­dre II-s wer­da: ,,Будем действовать осмотрительноно и решительночтобы окончательноочистить все черноморское побережьеНадо ожидатьчто большая часть горцев предпочитает выселиться в Турциючемперейти на назначенные для них места на КубаниДело окончательного покорения восточного берега Черного морянаиболее зависить от быстроты выселения туземцев~.(47) 2 ap­rils mi­xe­il ro­ma­no­vi pi­ra­dad Ca­vi­da sa­om­a­ri moq­me­de­be­bis zo­na­Siigi Sexv­da ji­qe­bi­sa da ub­ix­eb­is war­mo­mad­gen­lebsro­mel­Tac ul­ti­ma­tu­mi wa­uy­e­na _ ga­da­sax­le­bu­liy­vnen yu­ban­ze an osmaleT­Si wa­su­liy­vnenma­Ti mi­we­bi ki gan­saz­Rvru­li iyo ru­se­bis da­sa­sax­leb­laddid­ma mTa­var­ma mTi­el­ebs er­Ti Tve mis­ca mo­sa­fiq­reb­ladmag­ram 19 ap­rils mTeb­Si as­ul ru­sebs aR­ar daxv­daT ub­ix­e­biis­i­ni er­Ti­an­ad daZ-­ru­liy­vnen Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro­sa­kenam ma­mac­ma xal­xma Ta­vi­suf­le­bis da­kar­gvassam­Sob­los da­to­ve­ba da uc­xo­eT­Si ga­dax­ve­wa ar­Ciaap­ril­Si ub­i­xe­bi er­Ti­an­ad ga­da­saxl­dnen osmaleT­Si.(48) im­av­dro­ul­adad­ri­a­ni ga­zaf­xu­lis rTul pi­ro­beb­SifSe­xas raz­mma ge­ne­ral-ma­i­or pgra­bes me­Ta­ur­ob­iTmdfSe­xa­sa da mi­si Se­na­ka­de­bis ze­mo we­li ubi­x­eT­Si ga­da­sas­vlel uR­el­te­xi­lam­de gaw­min­da mTi­el­eb­i­sag­anrom­le­bic Zne­lad mi­sad­gom qva­bu­lebs af­ar­eb­dnen Tavsma-­Ti er­Ti na­wi­li la­ba­ze wa­vi­dana­wi­li ki Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro­sa­ken ga­em­ar­Ta osmaleT­Si wa­sas­vle­lad. 1864wga­zaf­xul­ze Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­le­Ti sa­na­pi­ro ad­le­ram­de sav­se iyo kav­ka­si­e­li mTi­el­eb­iTrom­le­bic ge­mebs el­-od­nen osmaleT­Si wa­sas­vle­lad.(49) ro­gorc aba­ri­at­in­skis bi­og­ra­firu­si of-­ic­e­ri azi­ser­ma­ni aR­niS­nav­da: ,,Вытесняемое шаг за шагом... полумиллионное население горцев перенесло все ужасы истре­би­тель­ной войныстрашные лишенияголодповальные болезниа очутившись на берегу  должно было ис­кать спасения в переселении вТурцию~.(50)

Crdi­lo-da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­i­sa da Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ros dap­yro­bis Sem­deg rCe­bo­da wi­na­aRm­de­go­bis uk­an­as­kne­li ke­re­bis lik­vi­da­cia, ji­qe­bis mTis Te­me­bis _ aib­ga, ah­Wif­si, fsxu, mdi­na­re­eb­is _ mZim­Tas, fso­us da bzi­fis ze­mo wel­Si, _ da­mor­Ci­le­ba. am miz­niT oT­xi sam­xed­ro ko­lo­na ga­ig­zav­na ge­ner­le­bis: p. Sa­ti­lo­vis, d. svi­at­op­olk-mir­skis, v. ge­im­an­is da p. gra­bes me­Ta­ur­ob­iT. af­xa­ze­Tis ja­re­bis sar­da­li p. Sa­ti­lo­vi pir­ve­li ko­lo­niT 25 ap­rils gag­ri­dan fso­us xe­o­bis­ken ga­em­ar­Ta. aib­ge­leb­ma, rom­le­bic fso­us ze­mo we­lis qva­bul­Si cxov­rob­dnen, viw­ro xe­o­ba xer­gi­le­biT Ca­ke­tes da sa­mi dRis gan­mav­lo­ba­Si med­gar wi­na­aRm­de­go­bas uw­ev­dnen p. Sa­ti­lovs. me­o­re ko­lo­na d. svi­at­op­olk-mir­skis me­Ta­ur­ob­iT 28 ap­rils so­xu­mi­dan ga­vi­da ge­me­biT ad­le­ris mi­mar­Tu­le­biT. me­o­re dRes es­kad­ra ad­le­ris koncxs mi­ad­ga da raz­mi md. mzim­Tas mar­jve­na na­pir­ze da­ba­nak­da. ji­qe­bi ru­sebs lo­i­al­ur­ad Sexv­dnen da ga­nuc­xa­des, rom osmaleT­Si ga­da­sax­le­ba sur­daT. ma­is­is da­saw­yis­Si raz­mi md. mzim­Tas mar­jve­na na­pirs auy­va mTe­bis­ken, Tan gza gah­yav­da. 10 ma­iss, p. Sa­ti­lo­vis da­sax­ma­reb­lad gag­zav­nil­ma raz­mma ge­ne­ral ba­te­za­tu­lis me­Ta­ur­ob­iT zur­gi­dan Se­ut­ia aib­ge­lebs. mTi­el­e­bi or cecxls Sua aR­moCn­dnen da dar­w­mun­dnen, rom wi­na­aRm­de­go­bis ga­we­va uaz­ro iyo. maT mor­Ci­le­ba ga­mo­uc­xa­des ru­sebs da xer­gi­le­bis gaw­men­da aR­uT­qves, am­as­Tan dro iT­xo­ves, rom pu­ri mo­em­kaT da osmaleT­Si wa­sas­vle­lad mom­zad­de­bu­liy­vnen. ru­se­Tis ja­ris na­wi­leb­ma ga­agr­Ze­les win­svla aib­gas siRr­me­Si, ra­Ta mTi­el­e­bi aeZ­ul­eb­in­aT, us­it­yvo mor­Ci­le­ba ga­mo­ec­xa­de­bi­naT. 12 ma­iss aib­gam sru­li mor­Ci­le­ba ga­mo­ac­xa­da da Te­mis mo­sax­le­o­ba zRvis sa­na­pi­ro­sa­ken ga­em­ar­Ta osmaleT­Si wa­sas­vle­lad. (51) am­is Sem­deg ah­Wif­si­sa da fsxus wi­na­aRm­de­go­ba uim­e­do gax­da.

ma­is­is da­saw­yis­Si Se­te­va­ze ga­da­vi­da me­sa­me ko­lo­nac vge­im­an­is me­Ta­ur­ob­iTigi mdso­Cis ze­mo we­li­sa­ken mi­em­ar­Te­bo­daSem­deg kav­ka­si­on­is mTa­va­ri qe­dis pa­ra­le­lu­rad ah­Wif­sis­ken ga­em­ar­Tame­oT­xe ko­lo­nam pgra­bes me­Ta­ur­ob­iT mdpa­ta­ra la­bis sa­Ta­ve­eb­Tanga­da­la­xa kav­ka­si­on­is mTa­va­ri qe­dimdmzim­Tas xe­ob­a­Si ga­da­vi­da da 12 ma­iss uk­ve ah­Wif­sSiSe­vi­daah­Wif­se­le­bi iZ­ul­eb­u­li gax­dnenSe­es­ru­le­bi­naT ad­re mi­ce­mu­li pi­ro­bamaT da­to­ves Ta­vi­an­Ti sac­xov­reb­le­bi da er­Ti­an­ad zRvis sa­na­pi­ro­sa­ken ga­em­ar­Tnenim­av­dro­ul­adfsxu­el­eb­ma de­pu­ta­cia ga­mog­zav­nes ru­se­Tis sar­dlo­bas­Tanma­Ti er­Ti na­წi­li Ta­nax­ma iyo Crdi­lo­eT kav­ka­si­a­Si ga­da­sax­leb­u­li­yoxo­lo na­wils osmaleT­Si was­vla sur­da. (52)

1864w. 20 ma­iss ru­se­Tis ja­ris oT­xi­ve ko­lo­na Se­er­Tda md.mzim­Tas ze­mo wel­Siah­Wif­siscen­trSiaul gu­ba­adv­Si (ruskba­a­daamJkras­na­ia po­li­a­nada mTi­el­Ta wi­na­aRm­de­go­bis uk­an­as­kne­li ke­ra da­ik­a­va. 21 ma­issgu­ba­ad­vis ve­lob­ze ko­lo­ne­bad gam­wkri­ve­bul ru­se­Tis ja­ris na­wi­lebs me­fis­nac­val­ma da kav­ka­si­is ar­mi­is mTa­var­sar­dal­ma mi­xe­il ro­ma­nov­ma mi­ul­o­ca kav­ka­si­is om­is dam­Tav­re­baSem­deg sa­ze­i­mo aR­lu­mi ga­im­ar­Ta da di­di na­di­mi ga­da­ix­ad­es.(53)

mi­ux­ed­av­ad im­i­sarom kav­ka­si­is mra­val­wli­a­ni omi dam­Tav­re­bu­lad ga­moc­xad­dada­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is mTis xe­ob­eb­Sisa­xel­dobrmdfse­zu­af­ses sa­Ta­ve­eb­Si jer ki­dev iy­vnen dar­Ce­ni­li mTi­el­Ta mci­re jgu­fe­birom­le­bic wi­na­aRm­de­go­bas ar wyvet­dnenmaT ga­sa­nad­gu­reb­lad Se­iq­mna ,,mfri­na­vi raz­me­bi~xo­lo Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ro­ze da mdi­na­re­Ta xe­ob­eb­Si kav­ka­si­is ar­mi­is sa­xa­zo ba­ta­li­on­e­bi gan­lag­da.(54) 1864wiv­lis­Si ru­se­Tis ja­re­bi fsxu­Si Se­iW­rnenfsxu­el­e­bi Tav­gan­wir­viT ibr­Zod­nenmag­ram da­mar­cxdnenru­se­Tis ja­reb­ma fsxu da­ik­av­esfsxu­el­Ta na­wi­li, 105 oj­a­xi (862 su­liCrdi­lo­eT kav­ka­si­a­Simdku­mas xe­ob­a­Si ga­da­saxl­daxo­lo di­di na­wi­li osmaleT­Si wa­vi­da. 1864wzaf­xul­Si osmaleT­Siga­da­saxl­da 20 aT­a­si ji­qi da 5 aT­a­si fsxu­e­li.(55) am­is Se­de­gad mdmzim­Tas xe­o­ba da mdbzi­fis xe­ob­is ze­mo we­li TiT­qmis mTli­an­ad ga­uk­ac­ur­da.

om­is dam­Tav­re­bis Sem­deg ,,ax­lad­dap­yro­bi­li mxa­re ar­aC­ve­ul­eb­riv sa­na­xa­ob­as war­mo­ad­gen­da, _ aRniSnavda ge­ne­ra­li sdu­xov­ski. _ ma­is­is bo­losiv­nis­Si da Sem­degga­da­ix­ed­av­di ma­Ra­li mTi­dan da da­in­ax­av­di Se­sa­niS­nav xe­ob­ebsqe­debsmTebsmdi­na­re­eb­sa da na­ka­du­lebs; ba­Rebs So­ris aqa-iq Can­da na­sax­la­re­bis kva­limag­ram yo­ve­li­ve es us­ic­oc­xlo iyoar­sad su­li­er­is Wa­Wa­ne­ba ar iyozo­gan ax­al­am­ow­ve­ri­li xor­ba­li jer ki­dev mow­mob­da ar­cTu di­di xnis win aq mo­sax­le­ob­is ar­se­bo­basmag­ram sax­na­vi min­dvre­bi met­wi­lad mig­de­bu­li da miy­ru­eb­u­li iyo da mxo­lod Sar­San­de­li si­min­dis ga­daW­ri­li Re­ro­e­bi mow­mob­darom aq od­es­Rac cxov­rob­dnen da Sro­mob­dnen ad­am­i­an­e­biar gin­do­da da­ge­je­re­bi­narom amuz­ar­ma­zar sivr­ce­Sira­sac ma­Ra­li mTis Txe­mi­dan Tva­li wvde­bo­dasu­li­e­ri ar Wa­Wa­neb­dami­ux­ed­av­ad am­i­saes ase iyomTe­li es Se­sa­niS­na­vi xe­de­bibu­ne­bis es Se­sa­niS­na­vi qmni­le­ba us­ic­oc­xlo iyo da mnax­vel­ze uf­ro mZi­me da sev­di­an STa­beW­di­le­bas ax­den­david­re sa­si­am­ov­nos~. (56)

am­ri­gadSa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ro­ze da Crdi­lo-da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­a­Simcxov­re­bi ad­iR­e­eb­i­sa da ab­az­eb­is mniS­vne­lo­va­ni na­wi­li 1858-1864 wlebSi osmaleT­Si ga­da­saxl­da, zo­gi­er­Ti xal­xi ki, ma­ga­li­Tad, ub­ix­e­bi _ mTli­an­ad. Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ro­ze TiT­qmis ar dar­Cnen ad­iR­e­e­bi da ab­az­e­bi, ma­Ti mci­re na­wi­li aul­eb­ad Ca­as­ax­les yu­ban­ze. sul, of­ic­i­al­u­ri mo­na­ce­me­biT, da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­id­an osmaleT­Si TiT­qos 470 aT­a­si ad­am­i­a­ni ga­da­saxl­da, xo­lo yu­ban­sa da la­ba­ze da­axl. 90 aT­a­si.(57) Tum­ca, sa­fiq­re­be­lia, rom es cif­ri gar­kve­ul­wi­lad Sem­ci­re­bu­lia. kav­ka­si­e­li mTi­el­eb­iT dat­vir­Tu­li xo­mal­de­bi ga­di­od­nen ta­ma­ni­dan, an­ap­id­an, no­vo­ro­si­is­ki­dan, tu­af­se­dan, jub­ga­dan, xos­ta­dan, so­Ci­dan, ad­le­ri­dan, can­drif­Si­dan, mdi­na­re­eb­is: tu, ne­Cef­su­xo, fSa­da, ma­kof­se Se­sar­Ta­ve­bi­dan.(58) ga­da­sax­le­bis pro­ce­si sas­ti­ki iyo, ra­sac TviTm­xil­ve­le­bi gad­mogv­ce­men: ,,Все это время чер­кесы ос­та­ва­лись на берегу моря, под открытым небом, без всяких средств к жизни. Стра­да­ниякоторые при­хо­ди­лось выносить в это время горцамнет возможности описатьони буквально тысячами умирали сголодуЗимою к этому присоединился холодВесь северо-восточный берег Чер­ного моря был усыпан трупами иумирающимимежду которыми лежала остальная масса живыхно до крайности осла­бев­ших и тщетно ждавшихкогда ихотправят в ТурциюОчевидцы передают ужас­ные сценывиденные ими в это времяОдин рассказывает о трупе матери женосившей на руках за­мерзших детей и никак не хотевшей расстаться с ними; третий  о целой груде человеческих телпри­жа­вшихся друг к другув надежде сохранить внутреннюю теплоту и в этом положении застывших и т.п.~.(59)

kav­ka­si­el mTi­el­Ta osmaleT­Si Zal­da­ta­ne­biT ga­da­sax­le­bis ga­mo ev­ro­pa­Si di­di xma­u­ri aty­daru­se­Tis xe­li­suf­le­ba Tavs im­ar­Tleb­darom mTi­el­Ta osmaleT­Si ga­da­sax­le­ba ma­Ti ne­ba-sur­vi­liT armom­xda­ra da yo­ve­li­ve ma­Ti Ca­re­vis ga­re­Se mox­daro­gorc cno­bi­li pub­li­cis­tige­ne­ra­li rfa­de­e­viaR­niS­nav­dakav­ka­si­is om­Si ru­se­Tis xe­li­suf­le­bis mi­zans war­mo­ad­gen­da: ,,сдвинуть горцев с восточногоберега Черного моря и заселить его русскимиЭта мера была совершенно необходима для безопасности наших владений~mag­ramro­gorc igi aR­niS­nav­da ci­niz­miTar­av­iT­ar auc­il­eb­lo­bas ar war­mo­ad­gen­da ad­gi­lob­ri­vi mo­sax­le­ob­is osmaleT­Si gan­dev­naru­seTs sak­ma­ri­sad hqon­da mi­we­bi mdyu­ba­nis mar­cxe­na na­pir­ze maT da­sa­sax­leb­ladmag­ram as­e­ve ar­av­iT­a­ri mi­ze­zi ar ar­se­bob­dada­ek­av­eb­in­aT is­i­ni ma­Ti sur­vi­lis wi­na­aRm­deg.(60) rfa­de­e­viro­me­lic of­ic­i­al­ur azrs ga­mo­xa­tav­dagu­lax­di­lad aR­niS­nav­darom ru­se­Tis sa­xel­mwi­fo in­te­re­si mo­iT­xov­da ,,соблюсти припоселении покорившихся только одно условиечтобы нигде онине примыкали к морючтобы по крайней мере несколькодесятков верст отделяли их от берега~rfa­de­e­vi uf­ro met gu­lax­di­lo­ba­sac iC­ens da aR­niS­navsrom,,это земля нужна была государству~xo­lo rac Se­ex­e­ba ad­gi­lob­riv mo­sax­le­ob­asmi­si TqmiT, ,,в нихсамих не было никакой надобности~.(62)

ru­seT-kav­ka­si­is om­is dam­Tav­re­bis Sem­deg ca­riz­mma vrce­li te­ri­to­ria mi­i­Ro sa­ko­lo­ni­za­ci­od. 1861-1864 wleb­Si da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­a­Si ka­zak­Ta 111 sta­ni­ca (14239 oja­­xi, 85 aT­a­si su­li) Ca­as­ax­les.(63) im­av­dro­ul­ad am mxa­re­Si as­ax­leb­dnen ru­se­Tis Si­da gu­ber­ni­eb­id­an gad­mo­sax­le­bul ru­sebs, uk­ra­in­el­ebs, os­ma­le­Ti­dan gad­mo­sax­le­bul ber­Zneb­sa da som­xebs.(64) da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is dap­yro­biT dam­Tavr­da as­wli­a­ni ru­seT-kav­ka­si­is omi, ri­Tac ru­se­Tis im­pe­ri­as­Tan kav­ka­si­is Se­er­Te­bis xan­grZli­vi pro­ce­si das­rul­da. Oom­is dam­Tav­re­bis Sem­deg ca­riz­mma kav­ka­si­a­Si Ta­vi mya­rad igr­Zno da dap­yro­bi­li mxa­ris sam­xed­ro-ad­mi­nis­tra­ci­u­li mow­yo­bi­sa da ko­lo­ni­za­ci­is­aT­vis zrun­vas Se­ud­gaom­is dam­Tav­re­bis Sem­deg ram­de­ni­me wlis gan­mav­lo­ba­Si Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­le­Tisa­na­pi­ro sru­li­ad da­ca­ri­el­eb­u­li iyoad­gi­lob­riv mkvidr­Ta sam­Sob­lo­dan ga­da­sax­le­bis Sem­deg ru­se­Tis xe­li­suf­le­bis wi­na­Se id­ga am­oc­a­na kvlav da­es­ax­le­bi­na bu­ne­biT ux­vad da­jil­do­eb­u­limag­ram ga­uk­ac­ri­el­eb­u­li mxa­re; es mxa­re ya­Ca­Re­bi­sa da kon­tra­ban­dis­te­bis Tav­Se­sa­fa­ri ar un­da gam­xda­ri­yoam­as­Tanmi­si bu­neb­ri­vi sim­did­re _ vrce­litye­e­bi da na­yo­fi­e­ri mi­we­bi aeT­vi­se­bi­naga­ne­vi­Ta­re­bi­na meR­vi­ne­o­bame­ab­re­Su­me­o­bame­Tam­ba­qo­e­bame­ba­Re­o­bame­fut­kre­o­baris­Tvi­sac aq Se­sa­niS­na­vi bu­neb­riv-kli­ma­tu­ri pi­ro­be­bi ar­se­bob­daMmag­ram um­Tav­re­si iyo am mxa­ris mo­sax­le­ob­is sa­kiT­xixe­li­suf­le­bassur­da, ,,иметь на этой при­морской окраине население вполне благонадежное в политическом отношении~. (65)am am­oc­an­is re­al­iz­ac­i­is miz­niT Se­mu­Sav­da ,,de­bu­le­ba Sa­vi zRvis ok­ru­gis da­sax­le­bi­sa da mi­si mar­Tvis Se­sa­xeb~, ro­me­lic im­pe­ra­tor­ma 1866w. 10 marts da­am­tki­ca. de­bu­le­biT gaT­va­lis­wi­ne­bu­li Ro­nis­Zi­eb­eb­is gan­xor­ci­el­eb­is miz­niT ca­riz­mma da­sav­leT kav­ka­si­is ad­mi­nis­tra­ci­u­li mow­yo­bis re­for­ma ga­na­xor­ci­e­la. Se­iq­mna Sa­vi zRvis ok­ru­gi, ro­me­lic mo­ic­av­da Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro te­ri­to­ri­as md. tu­af­se­dan md. be­ge­refs­Tam­de. (66)Ees uk­an­as­kne­li yu­ba­nis ol­qis uf­ross eq­vem­de­ba­re­bo­da. (67)

Tav­da­pir­ve­lad ga­dawy­da mxa­re da­es­ax­le­bi­naT ara sa­mo­qa­la­qo mo­sax­le­ob­iT, ar­am­ed sam­xed­ro mo­sam­sa­xu­re­eb­iT. yo­fi­li ka­zak­Ta Sa­viz­Rvis­pi­re­Tis ja­ri­sa­gan Se­iq­mna Saf­su­Re­Tis ka­zak­Ta sa­na­pi­ro ba­ta­li­o­ni, rom­lis cal­ke­u­li na­wi­le­bi sta­ni­ce­bad ga­an­aw­il­es yo­fi­li sam­xed­ro si­mag­re­eb­is te­ri­to­ri­eb­ze. ge­len­ji­kis si­mag­ris ad­gi­las war­mo­iq­mna ge­len­ji­kis sta­ni­ca; md. fSa­dis Se­sar­Tav­Tan _ sta­ni­ca be­re­go­va­ia; md. vu­lan­ze _ vu­lan­ska­ia (amJ. ar­xi­po-os­ip­ov­ka) da a.S. ka­za­kebs eZ­le­od­aT ja­ma­gi­ri da sur­sa­Ti, ma­ri­li, spir­ti, Tam­ba­qo mTe­li oj­ax­is­Tvis.(68)

am­ri­gad, ka­za­ke­bi Ca­as­ax­les oj­ax­eb­iT da mTli­an­ad sa­xel­mwi­fo kma­yo­fa­ze aiy­va­nes. Mmag­ram is­i­ni Zne­lad eg­u­eb­od­nen ad­gi­lob­riv pi­ro­bebs _ mTi­a­ni ad­gi­le­bi, tye­e­bi maT­Tvis mi­uC­ve­ve­li iyo. Aar iyo me­ur­ne­ob­is gaZ­Ro­lis mem­kvid­re­ob­i­Ti for­me­bi, rad­gan Cer­qe­ze­bi mTli­an­ad wa­vid­nen osmaleT­Si da wa­iR­es is­to­ri­u­li ga­moc­di­le­ba, ad­gi­lob­ri­vi pi­ro­be­bis cod­na da sa­me­ur­neo Cve­ve­bi. ad­gi­lob­ri­vi pi­ro­be­bis uc­od­in­ar­ob­is ga­mo, ka­za­ke­bi sa­na­pi­ro­ze dam­kvidr­dnen, ra­mac maT­Si ma­la­ri­is gavr­ce­le­ba da di­di msxver­pli ga­mo­iw­via, iR­up­eb­o­da sa­qo­ne­lic. ko­lo­ni­za­ci­a­ze uar­yo­fi­Tad moq­me­deb­da ug­zo­ob­ac.(69)

om­is dam­Tav­re­bis Sem­deg 12 sta­ni­ca Se­iq­mna, ro­me­lic yu­ba­nis ka­zak­Ta ja­ris Saf­suR­Ta qve­iT­Ta ba­ta­li­on­is­ag­an Sed­ga. es sta­ni­ce­bi da­fuZn­da ge­len­jik­sa da tu­af­ses So­ris. ba­ta­li­on­is Se­mad­gen­lo­ba­Si Se­vi­da 629 oj­a­xi 4 aT­a­si su­liT. im­av­dro­ul­ad aq Se­iq­mna ori da­ba: er­Ti som­xu­ri md. Saf­su­xo­ze da er­Ti ber­Znu­li ya­bar­din­skis kon­cxTan. mTel da­nar­Cen sa­na­pi­ro­ze md. tu­af­se­dan af­xa­ze­Tis saz­Rvram­de da­sax­le­be­bi ar iyo, iyo mxo­lod ja­ris­kac­Ta sa­gu­Sa­go­e­bi sa­xa­zo ba­ta­li­on­eb­i­sa da yu­ba­nis ka­zak­Ta Se­mad­gen­lo­bi­dan.(70) am sivr­cis da­sax­le­bis miz­niT ga­dawy­da sa­xa­zo ba­ta­li­on­eb­is gan­la­ge­bis ad­gi­las Se­eq­mnaT sam­xed­ro da­sax­le­be­bi da­oj­ax­eb­u­li da­ba­li wo­de­bis sam­xed­ro­eb­i­sag­an, ro­mel­Tac un­da ga­das­ce­mo­da 30 de­se­ti­na mi­wis nak­ve­Ti oj­ax­ze. ase aR­mo­cen­da pa­ta­ra da­sax­le­be­bi, Tum­ca ro­de­sac mTeb­Si Tav­Se­fa­re­bu­li Cer­qe­ze­bis nar­Ce­ne­bi ga­da­as­ax­les yu­ba­nis­pi­ra va­ke­ze, es ba­ta­li­on­eb­ic ga­da­iy­va­nes uf­ro mo­xer­xe­bul ad­gi­leb­Si ve­li­am­in­ov­sksa da da­xov­skSi.(71)

 1866w. 10 mar­tis de­bu­le­bis Ta­nax­mad, Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro zo­li md. tu­af­se­sa da md. bzifs So­ris, Sa­vi zRvi­dan kav­ka­si­o­nis mTa­var wyal­gam­yof qe­dam­de gan­saz­Rvru­li iyo rus mo­ax­al­Se­ne­Ta ,,sa­na­pi­ro sa­sof­lo da­sax­le­be­bis~ Se­saq­mne­lad. gad­mo­sax­le­bul­TaT­vis gan­saz­Rvru­li iyo mTe­li ri­gi Se­Ra­va­Te­bi: na­de­le­bi _ oj­ax­ze 30 de­se­ti­na; er­Tdro­u­li fu­la­di dax­ma­re­ba (50 man.), ga­da­sa­xa­de­bi­sa­gan ga­Ta­vi­suf­le­ba 15 wliT, sa­rek­ru­to val­de­bu­le­bi­sa­gan ga­Ta­vi­suf­le­ba da sxv. mag­ram, pir­vel xa­neb­Si, Sa­vi zRvis ok­rug­Si gad­mo­sax­le­bu­li ru­se­bis ric­xvi ma­inc mci­re iyo. ru­se­Tis Si­da gu­ber­ni­eb­is mkvidrT uW­ir­daT ad­gi­li­dan daZ­vra, aS­in­eb­daT ga­da­sax­le­bis sir­Tu­le, ha­vis sa­kiT­xi. am­as­Tan, maT Zi­ri­Ta­dad ain­te­re­seb­daT pu­ri, xo­lo Sa­vi zRvis ok­rug­Si sax­na­vi mi­we­bi mci­re iyo da purs aq me­or­ex­ar­is­xo­va­ni ro­li hqon­da. am­it­om xe­li­suf­le­bam ga­daw­yvi­ta gad­mo­sax­le­ba­ze ua­ri ar eT­qva qris­ti­an­eb­is­aT­vis sam­xreT kav­ka­si­id­an da an­a­tol­i­id­an, zo­ga­dad sla­ve­bi­saT­vis, mol­da­ve­le­bi­saT­vis da sxv. as­e­Ti po­li­ti­kis wya­lo­biT, an­ap­a­sa da no­vo­ro­si­isks So­ris ru­se­bis gar­da da­saxl­dnen Ce­xe­bi, bul­ga­re­le­bi, ber­Zne­bi.(72)

Sa­vi zRvis ok­ru­gis sa­uk­eT­e­so mi­we­bi da­is­ak­uT­res im­pe­ra­tor­ma da mis­ma na­Te­sa­veb­ma, kav­ka­si­is me­fis­nac­val­ma, did­ma sam­xed­ro da sa­mo­qa­la­qo Ci­nov­ni­keb­ma. im­pe­ra­tors ek­uT­vno­da ma­mu­li Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ro­ze, md. fsa­xa­sa da md. da­go­miss So­ris. es iyo Se­sa­niS­na­vi ad­gi­li bu­neb­riv-kli­ma­tu­ri pi­ro­be­biT, am­as­Tan kul­ti­vi­re­bu­li, sa­dac di­di yu­rad­Re­ba mi­eq­ca me­ba­Re­ob­i­sa da meR­vi­ne­ob­is gan­vi­Ta­re­bas. aq mo­ew­yo va­zis sa­na­Se­ne, sa­dac va­zis 26 sa­xe­o­ba ga­moh­yav­daT. im­pe­ra­to­ris ma­muls uS­u­al­od em­ij­ne­bo­da kav­ka­si­is me­fis­nac­vlis, di­di mTav­ris mi­xe­il ro­ma­no­vis ma­mu­li var­da­ne, ro­me­lic ga­da­Wi­mu­li iyo md. da­go­mis­sa da md. xo­Ji­efss So­ris, zRvi­dan mTam­de 8 aT­as de­se­ti­na­ze. aq­ve hqon­da ma­mu­li ge­ne­ral-ad­i­ut­ant mi­xe­il ta­ri­el­is Ze lo­ris-me­li­qovs; Sa­vi zRvis ok­ru­gis uf­ross d. pi­len­kos, so­xu­mis sam­xed­ro gan­yo­fi­le­bis uf­ross ge­ne­ral v. ge­im­ans. ji­qe­bis yo­fil so­fel mi­qel­rif­SSi, md. fso­us mar­cxe­na na­pir­ze, sam­xed­ro da­sax­le­ba mo­ew­yo; md. can­drif­Si­dan or ver­sze mol­da­ve­le­bis da­sax­le­ba mo­ew­yo, ro­mel­sac Sa­vi zRvis ok­ru­gis uf­ro­sis d. pi­len­kos pa­tiv­sa­ce­mad 1870 wels pi­len­ko­vo ew­o­da; ji­qe­bis im aul­Si, sa­dac ad­re re­Sid ge­Ci cxov­rob­da md. fso­us mar­jve­na na­pir­ze, ru­se­bi Ca­saxl­dnen da mas ve­si­ol­oe ew­o­da. md. fse­zu­af­se­ze da md. ku­defs­Ta­ze ad­iR­e­eb­is ori au­li mo­ew­yo. es ad­iR­e­e­bi mu­ha­ji­ro­bis dros mTebs Se­ef­ar­nen da ga­dar­Cnen. Sem­deg is­i­ni mTe­bi­dan Ca­mo­iy­va­nes da ru­su­li sam­xed­ro na­wi­le­bis Sta­beb­Tan Ca­as­ax­les.(73)

am­is Se­de­gad mo­xer­xda ram­de­ni­me aT­a­si, sxva­das­xva er­ov­ne­bis ad­am­i­an­is mo­zid­va, Tum­ca xe­li­suf­le­bas es ar ak­ma­yo­fi­leb­da, rad­gan mTav­ro­bis mi­er am saq­me­Si Ca­de­bul da­na­xar­jebs ar pa­su­xob­da. es da­sax­le­be­bi Zi­ri­Ta­dad or­i­en­ti­re­bu­li iyo xor­blis moy­va­na­ze da ar fiq­rob­dnen am mxa­ri­saT­vis uf­ro xel­say­re­li sof­lis me­ur­ne­ob­is dar­ge­bi­saT­vis, rom­li­saT­vi­sac es mxa­re uaR­re­sad karg pi­ro­bebs qmni­da. 1870w. oq­tom­ber­Si Sa­vi zRvis ok­rug­Si Ca­as­ax­les Saf­suR­Ta 90 oj­a­xi, rad­gan mi­iC­ni­es, rom is­i­ni uk­ve safr­Txes ver Seq­mnid­nen. ru­su­li si­mag­ris ve­li­am­in­ov­skis gar­Se­mo Seq­mni­li da­sax­le­bis ba­za­ze 1871 wels aR­mo­cen­da po­sad (wi­na­qa­la­qi) ve­li­am­in­ov­ski, xo­lo da­xov­skis si­mag­ris gar­Se­mo ar­se­bu­li da­sax­le­bis ba­za­ze 1874 wels po­sad da­xov­ski. 1874w. bo­los­Tvis Ta­na­med­ro­ve so­Cis ra­i­on­Si mxo­lod 15 sa­mo­qa­la­qo pi­ris oj­a­xi cxov­rob­da.(74) rac Se­ex­e­ba aul gu­ba­advs, mas Sem­deg, rac is 1864 wels ru­se­Tis ja­ris na­wi­leb­ma da­to­ves, sru­li­ad da­ca­ri­el­eb­u­li iyo. 1878w. Se­mod­go­ma­ze aq stav­ro­po­lis gu­ber­ni­id­an Ca­mo­vid­nen ber­Zne­bi, rom­le­bic sa­mo­sax­lo ad­gi­lebs eZ­eb­dnen. is­i­ni mo­xib­la gu­ba­ad­vis ve­lob­ma, ro­me­lic gam­xma­ri gvim­ris, buC­qna­ri­sa da ne­ker­Cxle­bis foT­le­biT me­wa­mul-mo­wi­Ta­lo fe­rad iyo Se­fe­ri­li. am­it­om am ad­gils kras­na­ia po­li­a­na uw­od­es. ma­le aq ber­Zen­Ta 36 oj­a­xi gad­mo­saxl­da. maT gaw­min­des ve­lo­bi, aag­es sax­le­bi, ga­aS­en­es baR-bos­tne­bi da me­ur­ne­ob­as mih­yves xe­li. ma­le aq es­to­ne­le­bic ga­moCn­dnen, rom­le­bic 4 ki­lo­met­riT ze­moT da­saxl­dnen.(75)

15 wlis gan­mav­lo­ba­Si, 1881 wlam­de, Sa­vi zRvis ok­rug­Si gar­da qa­la­qe­bi­sa no­vo­ro­si­is­ki, an­a­pa da po­sa­de­bi­sa so­Ci da tu­af­se, 37 da­sax­le­bu­li pun­qti aR­mo­cen­da. am da­sax­le­beb­Si, 1866 wlam­de Seq­mni­li 12 sta­ni­ci­sa da osmale­Ti­dan gad­mo­sax­le­bul­Ta da­sax­le­beb­Tan er­Tad, da­ax­lo­eb­iT 10 aT­as­am­de ka­ci cxov­rob­da, xo­lo qa­la­qeb­Tan er­Tad mo­sax­le­o­ba 22 aT­ass aR­wev­da da er­ov­nu­li Se­mad­gen­lo­biT sak­ma­od Wre­li iyo. aq cxov­rob­dnen ru­se­bi, ger­ma­ne­le­bi, Ce­xe­bi, es­to­ne­le­bi, mol­da­ve­le­bi, ber­Zne­bi, som­xe­bi da Cer­qe­ze­bic.(76) Sa­vi zRvis sa­na­pi­ros ko­lo­ni­za­ci­is id­e­ol­o­gi a. ve­reS­Ca­gi­ni 1878w. 19 ian­vars pe­ter­bur­gSi, ek­on­om­ik­u­ri sa­zo­ga­do­eb­is sa­er­To sxdo­ma­ze, Sa­vi zRvis aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ros ko­lo­ni­za­ci­is saq­me­Si xe­li­suf­le­bis am­oc­an­eb­is Se­sa­xeb aR­niS­nav­da: ,,На черноморском побережье Кавказакак наокрайне государствастоющей так много русской крови и денегпо праву должны господствовать церковь рус­скаяязыкрусскийграмота русскаяРазноплеменность населения вызывает необходимость ос­но­ва­ния школт.ктолько школою эторазноплнменное население в будущем может сделаться русским~.(77)

sa­na­pi­ros da­sax­le­bis saq­me ne­la mi­iw­ev­da win. 1894 wels Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ros ew­via eqs­pe­di­cia ru­se­Tis mi­waT­moq­me­de­bi­sa da qo­ne­bis mi­nis­tris a. s. er­mo­lo­vis me­Ta­ur­ob­iT. Eqspe­di­ci­is wev­rebs so­xum­Si sa­di­li ga­um­ar­Ta so­xu­mis ol­qis uf­ros­ma pol­kov­nik­ma bra­ker­ma. ban­ket­ze sit­yviT ga­mo­vi­da eqs­pe­di­ci­is wev­ri s. Sa­ra­po­vi, ro­mel­mac gu­lax­di­lad il­ap­ar­a­ka ru­se­Tis zrax­veb­ze am mxa­re­Si. ker­Zod, man Tqva: ,,mTe­li Ta­vi­si xan­grZli­vi is­to­ri­u­li brZo­li­sas, mi­is­w­raf­vis ra sam­xre­Ti­sa­ken, Tbi­li ci­sa da Tbi­li zRvi­sa­ken, ru­si xal­xi iR­ebs msxverpls da, ai, bo­los mas aqvs es cac da es zRvac. Aაq fri­al­ebs ru­su­li dro­Sa, da­liv­li­vebs ru­su­li ar­wi­vi. Mmag­ram ra­to­maa, rom ru­si ka­ci aq la­Rad ver grZnobs Tavs, ra­to­maa rom is aq Se­viw­ro­eb­ul­ia, sul­Se­xu­Tu­lia? ra­to­maa uc­xo is am Tbil na­pir­ze, am kaS­ka­Sa mzis qveS? vfiq­rob im­it­om, rom ru­su­li si­ke­Tis wya­lo­biT aq, am mi­wa­ze, ro­me­lic ru­su­li sis­xli­Taa mo­po­ve­bu­li, mo­ka­laT­da yo­vel­gva­ri uc­xo­to­me­li, gan­saxl­da sa­uk­eT­e­so ad­gi­leb­ze da ara mar­to av­iw­ro­ebs rus ad­am­i­ans, ar­am­ed das­ci­nis mas. Mmag­ram es did­xans ar gagr­Zel­de­ba. Cve­ni sa­xel­mwi­fo­eb­ri­vi am­oc­an­e­bi mo­iT­xo­ven, rom es mxa­re ara mar­to sa­xe­liT mxo­lod, ar­am­ed mar­Tlac iq­ces ma­le ru­sul mxa­red, rom aq mxar­da­We­ri­li, gaZ­li­er­eb­u­li da da­i­med­eb­u­li iy­os ru­si ka­ci. vi­sur­voT ba­to­ne­bo, rom es mox­des Cqa­ra, rom mZlavr ru­sul mu­cel­Si ma­le mo­ix­ar­Sos mTe­li aq­a­u­ri sxva­das­xva­to­mob­ri­vi da sxva­das­x­va­­er­ov­a­ni na­re­vi da rom es cac da es zRva nam­dvi­lad ru­su­li iy­os~.(78) pe­ter­bur­g­Si dab­ru­ne­bi­sas a. er­mo­lov­ma di­di rek­la­mi­re­ba ga­uw­ia ar­aC­ve­ul­eb­ri­vi si­la­ma­zis sa­na­pi­ros, ro­mel­sac ru­su­li ri­vi­e­ra uw­o­da. (79)

am dro­id­an da­iw­yo mi­wis nak­ve­Te­bis ga­yid­va so­Cis mi­da­mo­eb­Si. maT­ze fa­si Tan­da­Tan izr­de­bo­da. so­Cis ra­i­on­is Cqa­ri tem­piT da­sax­le­bas xe­li Se­uw­yo 1891-1892 wleb­Si no­vo­ro­si­is­ki-so­xu­mis gzat­ke­ci­lis gay­va­nam, ro­me­lic ru­seTs Za­li­an Zvi­ri da­uj­da. aT­as­ob­iT ga­ub­ed­ur­eb­u­li, ru­se­Tis Si­da gu­ber­ni­eb­Si 1891-1892 wle­bis Sim­Si­lo­biT dev­nil­ma ad­am­i­an­ma Ta­vi mo­iy­a­ra aq im im­ed­iT, rom pu­ris na­te­xi eS­o­va da Sim­Si­liT sikv­di­li­sa­gan Ta­vi ga­da­er­Ci­na. Mmag­ram da­Za­bul­ma Sro­mam, uC­ve­u­lo, TiT­qmis tro­pi­kul­ma sic­xem da mo­makv­di­ne­bel­ma ma­la­ri­am maT­ze dam­Rup­ve­lad im­oq­me­da. av­adm­yo­fo­be­bis gavr­ce­le­bas xels uw­yob­da mZi­me sa­yo­fac­xov­re­bo pi­ro­be­bi: cxov­re­ba mu­Sa­Ta far­du­leb­Si, da­Wa­ob­eb­u­li ad­gi­le­bis max­lob­lad. am gzis gay­va­nis mZi­me fur­clebs Se­e­xo maq­sim gor­ki moT­xro­ba­Si ,,ad­am­i­an­is da­ba­de­ba~, ro­me­lic 1892 wels kav­ka­si­a­Si mog­za­ur­ob­is­as TviTm­xil­ve­li gax­da yve­la im ub­ed­ur­eb­i­sa, rac im gzis gay­va­nas uk­av­Sir­de­bo­da da ro­me­lic mo­Sim­Si­le ad­am­i­an­eb­is Zvleb­ze am­o­iz­ar­da. amis Sem­deg, Sa­vi zRvis Crdi­lo-aR­mo­sav­leT sa­na­pi­ros ko­lo­ni­za­cia Cqa­ri tem­piT wa­ri­mar­Ta. 1896w. Sa­vi zRvis ok­ru­gi yu­ba­nis olqs ga­mo­e­yo da Sa­vi zRvis gu­ber­ni­ad gar­da­iq­mna. im­a­ve wels ve­li­am­in­ovsks tu­af­se ew­o­da im­a­ve sa­xel­wo­de­bis mdi­na­ris sa­xe­lis mi­xed­viT, xo­lo da­xov­skis so­Ci as­e­ve mdi­na­ris sa­xe­lis mi­xed­viT da sa­maz­ro qa­la­qi gax­da. (80)

am­ri­gad, im te­ri­to­ri­a­ze, sa­dac so­Cis ol­im­pi­u­ri Ta­ma­Se­bi un­da ga­im­ar­Tos ru­se­Tis im­pe­ri­am ad­gi­lob­ri­vi mo­sax­le­ob­is ge­no­ci­di da eT­now­men­da mo­aw­yo. es mxa­re mor­wyu­lia Ta­vi­suf­le­bi­saT­vis mebr­Zo­li ad­iR­e­eb­is (Cer­qe­ze­bis) sis­xliT da mo­fe­ni­lia ma­Ti Zvle­biT. mi­ux­ed­av­ad im­i­sa, rom am um­Zi­me­si da­na­Sa­ul­is Ca­de­nis Sem­deg di­di dro ga­vi­da, mas­ze xan­daz­mu­lo­bis va­da ar vrcel­de­ba. 1946w. 11 de­kem­bers ga­er­os ge­ne­ra­lur­ma as­am­ble­am mi­i­Ro re­zo­lu­cia, sa­dac ge­no­ci­di sa­er­Ta­So­ri­so nor­me­bis dar­Rve­vad da ka­cob­ri­ob­is wi­na­aRm­deg mi­mar­Tul da­na­Sa­ul­ad­aa ga­moc­xa­de­bu­li. 1948w. 9 de­kem­bers ga­er­om mi­i­Ro kon­ven­cia ge­no­ci­dis da­na­Sa­ul­is ac­de­ni­sa da ge­no­ci­dis das­jis Se­sa­xeb. am kon­ven­ci­is pir­ve­li mux­lis mi­xed­viT, ,,ge­no­ci­di mi­ux­ed­av­ad im­i­sa, mSvi­do­bis dros xde­ba Tu om­is dros, ar­is da­na­Sa­u­li, ro­me­lic sa­er­Ta­So­ri­so sa­mar­Tlis nor­mebs ar­Rvevs~.(81) me­o­re mux­li ge­no­cids Tvlis is­eT qme­de­bad, ro­me­lic Ca­de­ni­lia ro­me­li­me eT­ni­ku­ri, ra­sob­ri­vi Tu re­li­gi­u­ri jgu­fis mTli­an­ad an na­wi­lob­ri­vi mos­po­bis gan­zrax­viT, maT So­ris ma­Ti da­xoc­vis, wi­nas­war­gan­zrax­viT cxov­re­bis is­e­Ti pi­ro­be­bis Seq­mniT, ro­me­lic ga­miz­nu­lia mi­si mTli­a­ni Tu na­wi­lob­ri­vi fi­zi­ku­ri mos­po­bi­saT­vis.(72)

aR­sa­niS­na­via, rom ad­iR­Ta sa­zo­ga­do­eb­ri­vi moZ­ra­o­ba ,,Cer­qez­Ta kon­gre­si~ ibr­Z­vis, ra­Ta ru­seT­ma aR­i­ar­os XVIII-XIX sa­uk­un­e­eb­Si Cer­qez­Ta ge­no­ci­di. am miz­niT ,,Cer­­qez­Ta kon­gres­ma~ 2005 da 2006 wleb­Si ru­se­Tis fe­de­ra­ci­is pre­zi­dents mi­mar­Ta ru­se­Tis mi­er Cer­qez­Ta ge­no­ci­dis aR­i­ar­eb­is moT­xov­niT. Tum­ca maT pa­su­xi ar moh­yo­lia. ,,Cer­qez­Ta kon­gres­ma~ ev­ro­par­la­men­tsac mi­mar­Ta, ra­Ta man ru­se­Tis im­pe­ri­is qme­­de­ba XVIII-XIX sa­uk­un­e­eb­Si cnos ro­gorc ad­i­Ri xal­xis ge­no­ci­di. am faq­tma ru­se­Tis xe­li­suf­le­ba ga­aR­iz­i­a­na. mos­kov­ma ci­ni­ku­rad ga­nac­xa­da, rom ,,re­al­u­ri sa­fuZ­ve­li ge­no­ci­dis cno­bi­saT­vis ar ar­se­bobs~(83)







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პროექტის ხელმძღვანელი: მარიკა ლაფაური

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